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Cherokee 2011  Refusal Skills Training: Program that teaches young people how to resist pressures to begin smoking  Life Skills Training: Teaches.

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Presentation on theme: "Cherokee 2011  Refusal Skills Training: Program that teaches young people how to resist pressures to begin smoking  Life Skills Training: Teaches."— Presentation transcript:


2 Cherokee 2011


4  Refusal Skills Training: Program that teaches young people how to resist pressures to begin smoking  Life Skills Training: Teaches stress reduction, self-protection, decision making, self-control, and social skills  Wellness: Positive state of good health and well-being


6  Mental and physical condition that occurs when a person must adjust or adapt to the environment  Includes marital and financial problems  Eustress: Good stress (e.g., travel, dating)  Stress Reaction: Physical response to stress  Autonomic Nervous System is aroused  Stressor: Condition or event that challenges or threatens the person  Pressure: When a person must meet urgent external demands or expectations

7  Burnout: Job-related condition (usually in helping professions) of physical, mental, and emotional exhaustion. Has three aspects:  Emotional Exhaustion: Feel “used up” and “empty”  Cynicism or detachment from others  Feeling of reduced personal accomplishment

8  Primary Appraisal: Deciding if a situation is relevant or irrelevant, positive or threatening  Secondary Appraisal: Deciding how to cope with a threat or challenge  Perceived lack of control is just as threatening as an actual lack of control

9  Problem-Focused Coping: Managing or altering the distressing situation  Emotion-Coping Focusing: Trying to control one’s emotional reactions to the situation  Frustration: Negative emotional state that occurs when one is prevented from reaching desired goals  External Frustration: Based on external conditions that impede progress toward a goal  Personal Frustration: Caused by personal characteristics that impede progress toward a goal


11  Aggression: Any response made with the intention of doing harm  Displaced Aggression: Redirecting aggression to a target other than the source of one’s frustration  Scapegoating: Blaming a person or group for conditions they did not create; the scapegoat is a habitual target of displaced aggression  Escape: May mean actually leaving a source of frustration (dropping out of school) or psychologically escaping (apathy)

12  A stressful condition that occurs when a person must choose between contradictory needs, desires, motives, or demands  Avoidance-Avoidance Conflicts: Being forced to choose between two negative or undesirable alternatives (e.g., choosing between going to the doctor or contracting cancer)  NOT choosing may be impossible or undesirable  Approach-Avoidance Conflicts: Being attracted (drawn to) and repelled by the same goal or activity; attraction keeps person in the situation, but negative aspects can cause distress  Ambivalence: Mixed positive and negative feelings; central characteristic of approach-avoidance conflicts

13  Double Approach-Avoidance Conflicts: Each alternative has both positive and negative qualities  Vacillation: When one is attracted to both choices; seeing the positives and negatives of both choices and going “back and forth” before deciding, if deciding at all!  Multiple Approach-Avoidance Conflicts: When several alternatives have positive and negative features

14 1. Approach-approach conflicts 1. Approach-approach conflicts : positive equal value  Both outcomes are positive and both are of approximately equal value.  We would like to approach both outcomes but only one is possible.  Example = choosing between two good job offers.

15 3. Approach-avoidance conflicts:  Achieving the positive outcome requires accepting a negative outcome as well.  People want the positive outcome but also want to avoid the negative outcome.  Example  Example : marrying your girlfriend against your parents wishes means they will take you out of their will.

16 4.Multiple approach-avoidance conflicts:  Both outcomes have positive and negative consequences.  Example  Example : one job pays poorly but your boss is easygoing; the other job pays extremely well but the boss is a taskmaster.


18  Acquired (learned) inability to overcome obstacles and avoid aversive stimuli; learned passivity  Occurs when events appear to be uncontrollable  May feel helpless if failure is attributed to lasting, general factors

19  Type A Personality: Personality type with elevated risk of heart attack; characterized by time urgency and chronic anger or hostility  Anger and hostility may be the key factors of this behavior  Type B Personality: All types other than Type As; unlikely to have a heart attack

20  Personality type associated with superior stress resistance  Sense of personal commitment to self and family  Feel they have control over their lives  See life as a series of challenges,

21 ) Series of bodily reactions to prolonged stress; occurs in three stages

22  Stage of Resistance: Body adjusts to stress but at a high physical cost; resistance to other stressors Is lowered

23  Stage of Exhaustion: Body’s resources are drained and stress hormones are depleted, possibly resulting in:  Psychosomatic disease  Loss of health  Complete collapse

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