Presentation on theme: "One Republic—Two Americas?"— Presentation transcript:
1 One Republic—Two Americas? Chapter OneOne Republic—Two Americas?
2 Learning OutcomesDefine the institution of government and the process of politics.Identify the political philosophers associated with the “social contract” and explain how this theory shapes our understanding of the purpose of government and the role for individuals and communities in the U.S.Describe the U.S. political culture, and identify the set of ideas, values, and ways of thinking about government and politics shared by all.
3 Learning OutcomesCompare and contrast types of government systems, and identify the source of power in each.Define political ideology, and locate socialism, liberalism, conservatism, and libertarianism along the ideological spectrum.
4 Politics and Government Politics: process of resolving conflicts and deciding who gets what, when and howSelection of decision-makersStructure of institutionsCreation of public policyGovernment: formal institutions which allocate resources and resolve conflicts
5 Politics and Government Why is government necessary?Provide securityProtect liberty and rightsMaintain authority/legitimacyPresident Gerald Ford served (Dick Halstead/Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)“A government big enough to give you everything you want is a government big enough to take from you everything you have.”President Gerald Ford
6 Politics and Government Fundamental valuesPolitical culture (ideas, values, ways of thinking)Shared by all Americans?Result of political socializationLibertyOrder and rule of lawIndividualismEqualityProperty
8 Why Choose Democracy?Governments vary in structure and how they governTotalitarianAuthoritarianismAristocracyOligarchyDemocracyPolitical authority comes from citizensAnarchy
9 Why Choose Democracy? Direct democracy as a model Political decisions made by the people directly, not elected representativesAttained most easily in small communitiesInitiative/referendum/recallFounders had reservations
10 Why Choose Democracy? A democratic republic Framers crafted a republic ExperimentalPower (votes) resides with the peopleRepresentatives make policy and lawRepresentative democracy
11 Why Choose Democracy? Principles of democratic government Universal suffrageMajority rule and minority rightsFree electionsLimited government
12 Who Really Rules in America? Majoritarianism: government ought to do what majority desireElitism: society ruled by small group wishing to further self-interestsPluralism: conflict among interest groupsBargainingCompromise
13 Political IdeologiesPolitical ideology is closely linked set of beliefs about politicsShare societal goals and plan for achieving themAmerican politics focuses on conservatism and liberalism
14 Political Ideologies The traditional political spectrum Compares ideologies on continuum based on:Government influence over economyGoals of government activityFar left = socialismFar right = libertarianismMiddle = liberal and conservative
16 Political Ideologies Conservatism Liberalism Favor limited government economic involvementOften favor government involvement in social issues to preserve traditional valuesLiberalismFavor government regulation of economy to benefit societyTolerance for social changeSupport for civil rights
17 Political Ideologies Socialism Libertarianism Strong support for economic and social equalityIncome redistributionLibertarianismSkepticism toward governmentLaissez-faire capitalismOppose regulation of personal behavior
18 Political IdeologiesLiberal once meant limited government and no religion in politicsClassical liberalsEvolved into modern American meaning along with political evolution of Democratic PartyMeaning of liberal has not changed outside the U.S. and Canada
19 Political IdeologiesConservatives traditionally supported maintaining traditions and opposing changeToday:Economic conservativesSocial conservativesNot necessarily politically united
21 The Challenge of Change Demographic change in a democratic republicAging of citizensIncreased diversityDecline in economic dominanceGlobalizationTechnologyEnvironmental changeFigure 1-2(Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census)
22 Distribution of U.S. Population by Race and Hispanic Origin, 1980-2075 Figure 1-3Data for 2025, 2050, and 2075 are projections. *Persons of Hispanic origin can be of any race. †The “multiracial or other” category in 2000 is not an official census category but represents all non-Hispanics who chose either “some other race” or two or more races in the 2000 census. (Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census.)
23 The Challenge of Change Ethnic changeLatino voters tend to vote DemocraticMultiracial, multiethnic group interestsEnd of white dominance in political leadership?GlobalizationEmployment patternsProduct quality/safety standardsNo single national economic dominance
24 The Challenge of Change The technology revolutionAffects communication, work and educationEliminates boundariesMore people can compete, connect, collaborate
25 Social Networking Usage Figure 1-4Social networking today is a global phenomenon. Young people, in particular, are using the Internet for social networking. Figure 1–4 presents three important pieces of information. First, the bar for each country tells you what percentage of those using the Internet are using it for social networking and what percentage are not. For example, in the United States, 82 percent of the public use the Internet, but only 46 percent use it for social networking. The column on the far right gives the percentage of the public that does not use or have access to the Internet or .*Respondents who do not use the internet or . Based on total sample. “Don’t know/Refused” not shown. Samples in China, India and Pakistan are disproportionatelyurban. (Pew Research Center)
26 The Challenge of Change Environmental changePolitical, technological and global challengesGlobal warming (more natural disasters, drought, starvation)What do changes mean for you?Can our government recognize and meet challenges in time?Can we continue to embrace a single political culture?