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One Republic—Two Americas?

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Presentation on theme: "One Republic—Two Americas?"— Presentation transcript:

1 One Republic—Two Americas?
Chapter One One Republic—Two Americas?

2 Learning Outcomes Define the institution of government and the process of politics. Identify the political philosophers associated with the “social contract” and explain how this theory shapes our understanding of the purpose of government and the role for individuals and communities in the U.S. Describe the U.S. political culture, and identify the set of ideas, values, and ways of thinking about government and politics shared by all.

3 Learning Outcomes Compare and contrast types of government systems, and identify the source of power in each. Define political ideology, and locate socialism, liberalism, conservatism, and libertarianism along the ideological spectrum.

4 Politics and Government
Politics: process of resolving conflicts and deciding who gets what, when and how Selection of decision-makers Structure of institutions Creation of public policy Government: formal institutions which allocate resources and resolve conflicts

5 Politics and Government
Why is government necessary? Provide security Protect liberty and rights Maintain authority/legitimacy President Gerald Ford served (Dick Halstead/Time Life Pictures/Getty Images) “A government big enough to give you everything you want is a government big enough to take from you everything you have.” President Gerald Ford

6 Politics and Government
Fundamental values Political culture (ideas, values, ways of thinking) Shared by all Americans? Result of political socialization Liberty Order and rule of law Individualism Equality Property

7 Confidence in Institutions Declines
Figure 1-1: Gallup polling shows a loss in faith in institutions in the past 10 years, including steep declines regarding Congress, bank, and the presidency. (Source: Gallup) Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning

8 Why Choose Democracy? Governments vary in structure and how they govern Totalitarian Authoritarianism Aristocracy Oligarchy Democracy Political authority comes from citizens Anarchy

9 Why Choose Democracy? Direct democracy as a model
Political decisions made by the people directly, not elected representatives Attained most easily in small communities Initiative/referendum/recall Founders had reservations

10 Why Choose Democracy? A democratic republic Framers crafted a republic
Experimental Power (votes) resides with the people Representatives make policy and law Representative democracy

11 Why Choose Democracy? Principles of democratic government
Universal suffrage Majority rule and minority rights Free elections Limited government

12 Who Really Rules in America?
Majoritarianism: government ought to do what majority desire Elitism: society ruled by small group wishing to further self-interests Pluralism: conflict among interest groups Bargaining Compromise

13 Political Ideologies Political ideology is closely linked set of beliefs about politics Share societal goals and plan for achieving them American politics focuses on conservatism and liberalism

14 Political Ideologies The traditional political spectrum
Compares ideologies on continuum based on: Government influence over economy Goals of government activity Far left = socialism Far right = libertarianism Middle = liberal and conservative

15 The Traditional Political Spectrum
Table 1-1

16 Political Ideologies Conservatism Liberalism
Favor limited government economic involvement Often favor government involvement in social issues to preserve traditional values Liberalism Favor government regulation of economy to benefit society Tolerance for social change Support for civil rights

17 Political Ideologies Socialism Libertarianism
Strong support for economic and social equality Income redistribution Libertarianism Skepticism toward government Laissez-faire capitalism Oppose regulation of personal behavior

18 Political Ideologies Liberal once meant limited government and no religion in politics Classical liberals Evolved into modern American meaning along with political evolution of Democratic Party Meaning of liberal has not changed outside the U.S. and Canada

19 Political Ideologies Conservatives traditionally supported maintaining traditions and opposing change Today: Economic conservatives Social conservatives Not necessarily politically united

20 Political Ideologies Libertarians: extreme positions of both conservatives and liberals Limited government power over economy Complete freedom in social matters Ron Paul, a candidate for the 2012 Republican presidential nomination, is very popular among college students because of his libertarian positions emphasizing personal freedom. (AP Photo/Charlie Riedel) Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning

21 The Challenge of Change
Demographic change in a democratic republic Aging of citizens Increased diversity Decline in economic dominance Globalization Technology Environmental change Figure 1-2 (Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census)

22 Distribution of U.S. Population by Race and Hispanic Origin, 1980-2075
Figure 1-3 Data for 2025, 2050, and 2075 are projections. *Persons of Hispanic origin can be of any race. †The “multiracial or other” category in 2000 is not an official census category but represents all non-Hispanics who chose either “some other race” or two or more races in the 2000 census. (Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census.)

23 The Challenge of Change
Ethnic change Latino voters tend to vote Democratic Multiracial, multiethnic group interests End of white dominance in political leadership? Globalization Employment patterns Product quality/safety standards No single national economic dominance

24 The Challenge of Change
The technology revolution Affects communication, work and education Eliminates boundaries More people can compete, connect, collaborate

25 Social Networking Usage
Figure 1-4 Social networking today is a global phenomenon. Young people, in particular, are using the Internet for social networking. Figure 1–4 presents three important pieces of information. First, the bar for each country tells you what percentage of those using the Internet are using it for social networking and what percentage are not. For example, in the United States, 82 percent of the public use the Internet, but only 46 percent use it for social networking. The column on the far right gives the percentage of the public that does not use or have access to the Internet or . *Respondents who do not use the internet or . Based on total sample. “Don’t know/Refused” not shown. Samples in China, India and Pakistan are disproportionately urban. (Pew Research Center)

26 The Challenge of Change
Environmental change Political, technological and global challenges Global warming (more natural disasters, drought, starvation) What do changes mean for you? Can our government recognize and meet challenges in time? Can we continue to embrace a single political culture?

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