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Chapter 1 The Political Landscape

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1 Chapter 1 The Political Landscape
To Accompany Comprehensive, Alternate, and Texas Editions American Government: Roots and Reform, 10th edition Karen O’Connor and Larry J. Sabato  Pearson Education, 2009

2 Roots of American Government
Governments are policymaking vehicles. A citizen is a member of the community. Politics are who gets what, when, and how.

3 Functions of Government
Ideas drawn from Preamble to the Constitution. Establishing justice. Ensuring domestic tranquility. Providing for the common defense. Promoting the general welfare. Securing the blessings of liberty.

4 Types of Government Monarchy vests power in one in the interest of all. Totalitarianism vests power in one in self-interest. Oligarchy vests power in few in their own interest. Democracy is power for the people.

5 Philosophical Origins
Enlightenment changes views on government. Mayflower Compact as example of a social contract. Hobbes and Locke’s social contract theory. Hobbes wants a single ruler to protect the weak. Locke believes the protection of property is key.

6 Government in the Colonies
Colonists fear British-style monarchy. New England uses direct democracy. Most later colonies use indirect democracy. Citizens prefer the term republic to democracy.

7 American Political Culture
Personal liberty, or freedom from government. Political equality. Popular consent and majority rule. Popular sovereignty, which is based in natural law. Civil society, or the society created by the people. Individualism. Religious faith.

8 Political Ideology Ideologies are beliefs that shape worldviews.
Libertarians favor free markets and personal liberty. Conservatives want little regulation of economy. Social conservatives favor regulation of morality. Liberals want an active government. Labels can be problematic.

9 Changing American People
Population is increasing in size. Racial and ethnic composition is shifting. Country is aging. Families are becoming smaller and less traditional.

10 Attitudes Toward Government
Demographics shape our perspective. American dream is a goal for many citizens. People have high expectations. Voters can be apathetic. Americans may lack faith in leaders. The standard of living is quite high.

11 AV- Faith in Institutions

12 Figure 1.1- Allocation of the Budget

13 Figure 1.2- Adult Self-Identification

14 Figure 1.3- 2008 Presidential Election

15 Figure 1.4- U.S. Population Growth

16 Figure 1.5- Race and Ethnicity

17 Figure 1.6- America Is Getting Older

18 Table 1.1- Symbols of the United States

19 Table 1.2- Types of Government

20 Table 1.3- Cost of Health Care

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