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PART ONE ATOMIC THEORY
Over the course of thousands of years our idea of what matter is made of and what the atom looks like has changed dramatically There are 6 major contributors, although there are many many many others who have helped out along the way The 6 major contributors to the atom were Democritus, John Dalton, J.J. Thomson, Ernest Rutherford, Neils Bohr, and Erwin Schrodinger
DEMOCRITUS Democritus (460 – 370 B.C.) was one of the first people to describe the atom Unlike all of the other contributors to the atom, his thoughts were NOT based on scientific evidence and research, but just his own thoughts Democritus thought that atoms were indivisible and indestructible
JOHN DALTON John Dalton (1766 – 1844) was the first person to describe the atom using scientific evidence and research He studied the ratios in which elements combine in chemical reactions to come up with his theory
JOHN DALTON John Dalton’s Atomic Theory can be explained in 4 parts: 1.All elements are composed of tiny indivisible particles called atoms 2.Atoms of the same element are identical. The atoms of one element are different from the atoms of all other elements 3.Atoms of different elements can physically mix together (mixtures) or chemically combine in whole ratios to form compounds 4.Chemical reactions occur when atoms are separated, joined, or rearranged in different combinations. Atoms of one element will never change into atoms of another element as a result of a chemical reaction.
J. J. THOMSON In 1897 J.J. Thomson discovered the electron! With this discovery we no longer think that the atom is indivisible, because we know that it is now made up of even smaller parts
J. J. THOMSON His experiment is the cathode ray experiment: He passed an electric current through gases at low pressure in a sealed glass tube with electrodes at both ends, this produced a cathode ray (a glowing beam) He then did tests on the cathode ray with electrically charged plates, and he found that the ray went away from the negatively charged plate and towards the positively charged plate He knew that like charges repel and opposite charges attract so he reasoned that the ray was negatively charged
CATHODE RAY EXPERIMENT
J. J. THOMSON J.J. Thomson knew that the atom had an overall neutral charge, so he thought the negative electrons were evenly distributed through the positive atom His model is known as the plum pudding model
ERNEST RUTHERFORD In 1911 Rutherford performed the gold foil experiment He shot alpha particles (Helium atoms that are super positively charged) at a thin sheet of gold Because they thought the gold sheet had its positive charged scattered throughout they expected that the particles should either go through or be slightly deflected Many did that, but some also bounced off the gold foil really strongly, which was really surprising and unexplained
GOLD FOIL EXPERIMENT
ERNEST RUTHERFORD Based on his experiment Rutherford concluded that: The atom is mostly empty space All of the positive charge and all of the mass of the atom are found in the middle This positively charged, dense middle region was called the NUCLEUS Electrons are found evenly distributed around the nucleus His model is known as the “nuclear atom” *When Chadwick found the neutron it was added to Rutherford’s model and put in the nucleus
OTHER IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTIONS Robert A. Millikan – found the charge of an electron using the oil drop experiment Eugen Goldstein – using a similar experiment to J.J. Thomson he found the positively charged proton, and found that it’s mass was much much larger than an electron (1840 times heavier) James Chadwick – found the neutron and found that it has no charge but a mass the same as the proton
OVERVIEW OF THE ATOM The atom is the smallest piece possible of any given element while still keeping all of the properties of that element The atom is made up of 3 subatomic particles: The proton, neutron and electron “Subatomic” Sub = under or below Atomic = of or relating to an atom or atoms The atom is TINY!!! One penny (if it were made of pure copper) would contain 2 x 10 22 copper atoms Technology has improved so much that we can now see individual atoms using an electron microscope
OVERVIEW OF THE ATOM What we know (as of Rutherford/Chadwick): Electrons are negative and have almost no mass and are distributed around the nucleus Protons are positive & neutrons have no charge. Both are much heavier and are found in the nucleus
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