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The History of the Atom.

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Presentation on theme: "The History of the Atom."— Presentation transcript:

1 The History of the Atom

2 Discovery of Small Particles
The Greeks John Dalton

3 Democritus 460 BC - 370 BC Coined the term ‘atomos’
All matter is composed of small, indivisible particles (atoms) No experimentation

4 Aristotle Aristotle emphasized that nature consisted of four elements: air, earth, fire, and water.

5 John Dalton’s Solid Sphere Model
In 1803, John Dalton was the first to show laboratory evidence of the existence of atoms. Dalton’s model of the atom was a solid sphere with no subatomic particles…the atom was indivisible! Dalton also proposed the first atomic theory which stated that all things are made up of atoms and these atoms can combine in simple whole number ratios to form compounds.

6 John Dalton  Dalton's Atomic Theory All matter is made of atoms. Atoms are indivisible and indestructible. 2) All atoms of a given element are identical in mass and properties 3) Compounds are formed by a combination of two or more different kinds of atoms.

7 Discovery of the Electron
William Crookes J.J Thomson Robert Millikan

8 William Crookes ~ Discharger tube

9 Test with a magnet

10 The paddle wheel experiment

11 J.J. Thomson: Cathode Rays
Cathode rays can be deflected by a magnetic field.

12 J.J. Thomson: Cathode Rays
The beam was composed of negatively charged fast-moving particles called ‘electrons’.

13 What were these particles???
Thomson reasoned that since the beam came from the cathode (a negative electrode), the particles may have a negative charge. Studied the deflection of the cathode ray by an electric field to determine if this was the case By studying factors that effected the deflection of the beam, Thomson calculated the charge to mass ratio of the particle

14 Robert A. Millikan Established the charge of an electron and
Determined the atomic structure of electricity

15 Millikan’s Oil Drop Experiment
When he sprayed oil droplets into a chamber and bombarded them with X-rays to place a negative charge on them, the charged droplets were attracted to the positive plate. Changing the strength of the electrical field offset the attraction and allowed Millikan to determine the charge of the electrons. He measured the charge of the electrons (1.60 X coulombs) and later used this to calculate their extremely small mass (9.11 x grams).

16 2.2

17 What did it look like inside?

18 Discover of the Nucleus
Ernest Rutherford

19 J. J. Thompson

20 Thomson’s Plum Pudding Model (1896ish)
Thomson concluded that the beam was made up of negatively charged subatomic particles called electrons (e-) No matter what metal the electrodes were made of, the same charge to mass ratio was calculated. Since atoms are neutral - there must be some positively charged aspect as well….. ball of positive charge electrons

21 2.2

22 Ernest Rutherford

23 In Simpler terms…


25 Earnest Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment
His expected results He shot alpha particles (+ charged) through the atoms of gold in a thin sheet of foil, and studied how they were scattered by the atoms. Oddly, some of the particles “bounced” back off the foil but most when straight through. The circles are atoms of gold, the dots are the nucleus and the arrows are the alpha particles (positively charged electromagnetic radiation). The actual results

26 Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment
start experiment DO NOT OPEN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL INSIDE + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + LOOK INSIDE THE GOLD ITS Chemistry

27 Interpretation of the experimental results
Most of the atom is empty space. The mass concentrated at the center of an atom called ‘nucleus’. The nucleus is positively charged. The positively charged particle is called ‘proton’.

28 Discovery of the neutron
James Chadwick

29 James Chadwick

30 ITS Chemistry

31 The Atom as we know it today

32 Niels Bohr

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