Presentation on theme: "Revitalising Rainfed Agriculture National Network – An Overview Malkangiri, May, 2012."— Presentation transcript:
Revitalising Rainfed Agriculture National Network – An Overview Malkangiri, May, 2012
Premises of Agriculture Policy and investments in India : 1.Input-response 2.Intensive inputs 3.Well-endowed areas (water/ soils / topography) 4.High productivity & surplus generation Seeds Fertilisers Extension CreatingDemand PriceSupport Irrigation Labour Machinery Research Industry Transport Storage Credit Energy This has become de facto agriculture policy, even extended to rainfed areas
Seeds Fertilisers Extension Creating Demand Price Support Irrigation Labour Machinery Research Industry Transport Storage Singular agricultural policy ‘naturally’ discriminated the rainfed areas…… What Public Policy Support is Available? Undulating Marginal lands Low soil depth High climate variability interior Low inputs …..
Rainfed Areas : where 84% of rural poor live!! Rural Poverty Geography of the Country Poverty Clusters 5 Irrigated Lands POVERTY DISTRESS DEGRADATION
Parity in Public Investments! Cumulative investments on watershed development in 40 years Annual Subsidy on fertilisers Mid-term review of XI plan, Planning Commission
Inherent disparities in public investments: What can a rainfed farmer do if such a support is available on an annual basis>
Parity in investments: What can a rainfed farmer do if such investments are available for moisture management?
RRA network is attempting to evolve a framework and advocates for… Differentiated policies for rainfed agriculture (including livestock and fisheries) Parity and substantial scaling up of public investments for revitalising rainfed areas Appropriate framework for public investments – rooted in a paradigm relevant for rainfed areas.
Drivers of Agriculture Growth so far… Expansion of irrigation- mainly groundwater led, of late.. Replacement of seeds – varieties, hybrids and GM Intensification of fertilizer use through subsidies Promotion of pesticides, herbicides Mechanization (to some extent)..rest are cursory.. National food security, Productivity enhancement, focus on well- endowed surplus generating regions.. Are the key processes.
Multiple Crises … Technology fatigue Failing fertiliser use efficiency Stagnant Total Factor Productivity Low growth with high input subsidies Subsidies surpassing investments Soil degradation Expanding ‘dark’ groundwater areas Increasing costs Increasing Climate Change risks Acute Farmers’ distress Poverty & hunger.. Droughts Left Wing Extremism High inflation in food.. ECONOMIC ECOLOGICAL SOCIAL
More of the SAME drivers…. Do we continue with the same Drivers while planning for the Rainfed Areas? Are the Agro-Geographies and the Agro- Ecologies the same? More of the SAME distress….?? What are the appropriate Drivers / Engines of Inclusive Growth for rainfed areas? Growth – without distress, inclusive of people and sustainable?
Agro-Ecologies are location specific Varying rainfall regimes (humid, sub-humid, semi-arid and arid regions) High rainfall risks Location specific topography, mostly undulating Low soil depth in large areas Diverse land use …etc.
What to be achieved? National food security » OR LOCAL/ HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY ? Productivity Growth » OR INCOME GROWTH? Single Crop / single Animal productivity » OR SYSTEM / AREA PRODUCTIVITY? Intensive growth in well-endowed areas » Or EXTENSIVE GROWTH IN ALL AREAS? Intensive irrigation for few » OR EXTENSIVE SUPPORT IRRIGATION FOR ALL? These are questions on the paradigm
Drivers / Growth Engines of a Relevant Paradigm for Rainfed Areas 1.Soil productivity through organic matter addition 2.Supplementary/ critical irrigation – protecting kharif crops at scale 3.Millets and local food security 4.Agronomic & Management Revolution: – System of Rice Intensification – Crop systems, NPM and other SA. 5.Diverse crop systems 6.Extensive livestock –support systems and focus on meat animals and bullocks 7.Fisheries in rainfed water bodies 8.Invest on commons 9.Farmers’ institutions
Relevant Paradigm for rainfed areas Soils and Rainfall Use Efficiency Protective irrigation Strengthening extensive livestock systems and Commons Diverse and location specific crop systems (related seed systems) Promote agronomic innovations Reduce costs and external input use Household and local Food Security TOTAL DECENTRALISATION, LOCATION SPECIFIC DRIVERS, INVEST ON INSTITUTIONAL INNOVATIVE CAPACITIES AND FACILITATION, INTEGRATE PROGRAMS INTO A RELEVANT PARADIGM AT THE BLOCK LEVEL, ITERATIVE PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION & LEARNING