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**STATISTICS HYPOTHESES TEST (I)**

Professor Ke-Sheng Cheng Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering National Taiwan University

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**Examples of hypothesis tests**

Based on historical records, do female students really perform better in statistics class than male students? Data from a simulated AR(2) process. 3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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**Do you see an increasing/decreasing trend?**

3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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**The trends are apparent.**

3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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**An AR(2) process Stationary process 3/27/2017**

Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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**An AR(2) process Stationary process 3/27/2017**

Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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**What is hypothesis test**

3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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**Null and alternative hypotheses**

Two hypotheses and are defined as: (Null hypothesis) (Alternative hypothesis) A procedure for deciding whether to accept (or more precisely, fail to reject) the hypothesis or to accept the hypothesis (or reject ) is called a “test procedure” or simply a “test”. 3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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**Simple and Composite Hypotheses**

3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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**The Critical Region and Test Statistics**

Consider the following hypotheses test: Suppose that we are given a random sample of size n, , from a distribution with parameter . Let S denote the sample space of the n-dimensional random vector 3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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In order to carry out the test we can partition the sample space S into two disjoint subsets So and S1. Subset So contains the values of X for which we will accept , and subset S1 contains the values of X for which we will reject The subset for which will be rejected is called the “critical region” of the test. 3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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Why is it fixed? 3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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Critical region – fixed due to specification of Ho , distribution of the test statistic, and the level of significance. 3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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The Power Function Either the “critical region” or the “fixed” interval for the test statistic of a test is independent of the test parameter . However, the value of is unknown, therefore the probability that a test will reject is a function of , and is denoted by , i.e., where C is the critical region of The function is called the power function of the test . 3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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Types of error 3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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**Making a test have a specific significance level**

3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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Example 3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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**Power function of the test**

3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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**Power functions C=6 C=7 C=8 3/27/2017**

Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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**Now, let’s set the size of the random sample n = 20 and conduct the same test.**

3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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Example Suppose that is a random sample of size n and we wish to test the hypotheses: 3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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**Noncentral t distribution in R**

3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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**Non-centrality parameter**

ncp=0 ncp=1,-1 ncp=2,-2 ncp=3,-3 3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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**Guidelines for Hypothesis Testing**

When testing a hypothesis concerning the value of some parameter , the statement of equality will always be included in H0. In this way H0 pinpoints a specific numerical value that could be the actual value of . This value is called the null value and is denoted by 0. Whatever is to be detected or supported is the alternative hypothesis. It is hoped that the evidence leads us to reject H0 and thereby to accept H1. 3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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**A confidence interval is just the flip side of a hypothesis test. **

If the hypothesis test fails to reject H0, then the parameter from H0 is definitely within the confidence interval. 3/27/2017 Laboratory for Remote Sensing Hydrology and Spatial Modeling, Dept of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan Univ.

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