 # Nuclear Atom and Unanswered Questions

## Presentation on theme: "Nuclear Atom and Unanswered Questions"— Presentation transcript:

Rutherford Positive charge in the middle surrounded by fast moving electrons How come the electrons don’t get pulled into the middle? Why do different elements behave differently?

Early 1900’s Scientists made some observations
Certain elements emitted visible light when heated in a flame Elements chemical behavior is related to the arrangement of electron in its atoms Relationship between atoms and light

Form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space Ex) Visible light, microwaves, X-rays, radio waves…

Waves What is a wave? A traveling rhythmic disturbance Carries energy from place to place without requiring matter to travel across the in-between distance Matter does not move from one place to another, the disturbance (wave) does. Sound and light travel in waves

Wave Basics Crest – the highest point above the rest position.
Trough – the lowest point below the rest position.

Speed of a Wave Wavelength (λ) – the distance between a point on one wave and the same point on the next wave cycle. Speed = Wavelength x Frequency (s=λf) Unit = m/s (meters per second)

Parts of a wave Amplitude – (A) wave height – relates to the intensity of the light Wavelength (λ) – distance between two adjacent peaks Frequency ( ν) – the number of wavelengths (or wave cycles) that pass a given point in one second Hertz (Hz) – unit for frequency; a wave that sends1 crest (or 1 wave cycle) by a point every second would be ν = 1Hz or “1/ s” Velocity – speed of light = c = 3.00x108m/s

Amplitude Example The more energy a wave has, the greater is its amplitude.

The Waves of the Spectrum
The full range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation is called the Electromagnetic Spectrum.

Visible Light Visible light is light is the part of the EM spectrum the human eye can see. Each color corresponds to a specific frequency and wavelength.

Complete the worksheet while watching the movie.

Homework Book Questions
Read, notes, and vocabulary for 6.2 6.9, 6.13, 6.15, 6.17, 6.18 Due Monday

Visible Light Small part of the electromagnetic spectrum
Short wavelengths bend more than long wavelengths as they pass through the prism Results in the rainbow we see (ROY G BIV) Energy increases with increasing frequency

Practice Which of the below waves has … the higher frequency?
the longer wavelength? If one wave represented red light and one represented blue light which would be which? Which one would have more energy???

EM Spectrum Bigger slower to shorter faster (more harmful)

Wave speed Speed, frequency and wavelength are related and give us an understanding of the energy of the wave!!! speed of light = frequency x wavelength c (in meter/second) = ν (in hertz) x λ (in meters) c = v x λ

Practices problems Red light has a wavelength of 722nm, what is the frequency of the light? Don’t forget to convert nm to m. An electromagnetic wave is measured to have a frequency of 4.7x1013Hz. Calculate its wavelength and identify the type of wave.

Things wave model of light cannot explain
Black-Body radiation Emission of light from hot objects 2) Photoelectric effect Emission of electrons from metal surfaces on which light shines 3) Emission line spectra - Emission of light from electronically excited gases i.e. tungsten metal emits bright white light when heated i.e. red glow of electric stove burner

Quantum Concept Max Planck said energy can be either released or absorbed by atoms ONLY in discrete “chunks” of some minimum energy Quantum meaning “fixed amount” is the smallest quantity of energy that can be emitted or absorbed as electromagnetic radiation

Quantum Concept The ball can only have certain amounts of potential energy when at rest. The potential energy of the ball at rest is quantized.

Like a set of stairs, the energy states of an electron is quantized – i.e. electrons are only found on a specific step The ramp is an example of a continuous situation in which any energy state is possible up the ramp

Einstein used quantum theory to explain photoelectric effect.
Photocell - emitted electrons are drawn toward positive terminal creating an electrical circuit When photons of significant high energy strike a metal surface – electrons are emitted from the metal

Energy of quantum = Planck’s constant x frequency
Quantum Concept Planck proposed that the energy (E) of a single quantum is equal to a constant (Planck’s constant (h)) times the frequency of the radiation. Planck’s constant = h = 6.626x10-34 Joule-second (Js) Energy of quantum = Planck’s constant x frequency E = h v

Practice Exercises A laser emits light with a frequency of 4.69x1014 s-1. How much energy is emitted from one quantum of the radiation from this laser? Calculate the energy of one photon (quantum) of yellow light whose wavelength is 589nm.

Matter can only gain or lose energy in small specific amounts. Quantum
Minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom.

Homework Book Questions
Read, notes, and vocabulary for 6.2 6.9, 6.13, 6.15, 6.17, 6.18

Quantum Concept Glowing light emitted by hot objects
As the object is heated it gains energy… As the object gains it changes colors (emits different colors)

EM Spectrum Drawing Where is red in the rainbow? Why?
Where is violet in rainbow? Why? Pick something to draw. You are given the wavelengths of each color (on sheet) Determine a scale that you are going to use to draw Convert nm to mm Convert wavelengths of each color to frequency Convert frequency to energy (think Planck) All work must be shown on back to receive credit

Planck Proposed that emitted light was quantized
Energy of a quantum is related to the frequency of the emitted radiation E (quantum) = h v E=energy H= planck’s constant V= frequency

Wave or Particle? Electromagnetic radiation behaves sometimes like a wave and sometimes like a stream of particles.

Photoelectric Effect Beam of light has many wave like characteristics…
It can also be thought of as stream of tiny particles or bundles of energy Photons Particle of electromagnetic radiation with no mass that carries a quantum of enrgy E (photon) = h v

Atomic Emission Spectrum
Set of frequencies of the electromagnetic waves emitted by the atoms of the element Each element’s atomic emission spectrum is unique Used to determine unknowns (forensics)

5.1 Worksheet Complete 5.1 worksheet using only your notes.

Interactions of Light When light strikes a new medium, the light can be reflected, absorbed, or transmitted. When light is transmitted, it can be refracted, polarized, or scattered.