Presentation on theme: "Nuclear Atom and Unanswered Questions"— Presentation transcript:
1 Nuclear Atom and Unanswered Questions RutherfordPositive charge in the middle surrounded by fast moving electronsHow come the electrons don’t get pulled into the middle?Why do different elements behave differently?
2 Early 1900’s Scientists made some observations Certain elements emitted visible light when heated in a flameElements chemical behavior is related to the arrangement of electron in its atomsRelationship between atoms and light
3 Light Electromagnetic radiation Form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through spaceEx) Visible light, microwaves, X-rays, radio waves…
4 WavesWhat is a wave?A traveling rhythmic disturbanceCarries energy from place to place without requiring matter to travel across the in-between distanceMatter does not move from one place to another, the disturbance (wave) does.Sound and light travel in waves
5 Wave Basics Crest – the highest point above the rest position. Trough – the lowest point below the rest position.
6 Speed of a WaveWavelength (λ) – the distance between a point on one wave and the same point on the next wave cycle.Speed = Wavelength x Frequency (s=λf)Unit = m/s (meters per second)
7 Parts of a waveAmplitude – (A) wave height – relates to the intensity of the lightWavelength (λ) – distance between two adjacent peaksFrequency ( ν) – the number of wavelengths (or wave cycles) that pass a given point in one secondHertz (Hz) – unit for frequency; a wave that sends1 crest (or 1 wave cycle) by a point every second would be ν = 1Hz or “1/ s”Velocity – speed of light = c = 3.00x108m/s
8 Amplitude ExampleThe more energy a wave has, the greater is its amplitude.
9 The Waves of the Spectrum The full range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation is called the Electromagnetic Spectrum.
10 Visible LightVisible light is light is the part of the EM spectrum the human eye can see.Each color corresponds to a specific frequency and wavelength.
11 Complete the worksheet while watching the movie.
12 Homework Book Questions Read, notes, and vocabulary for 6.26.9, 6.13, 6.15, 6.17, 6.18Due Monday
13 Visible Light Small part of the electromagnetic spectrum Short wavelengths bend more than long wavelengths as they pass through the prismResults in the rainbow we see (ROY G BIV)Energy increases with increasing frequency
14 Practice Which of the below waves has … the higher frequency? the longer wavelength?If one wave represented red light and one represented blue light which would be which?Which one would have more energy???
15 EM SpectrumBigger slower to shorter faster (more harmful)
16 Wave speedSpeed, frequency and wavelength are related and give us an understanding of the energy of the wave!!!speed of light = frequency x wavelengthc (in meter/second) = ν (in hertz) x λ (in meters)c = v x λ
17 Practices problemsRed light has a wavelength of 722nm, what is the frequency of the light?Don’t forget to convert nm to m.An electromagnetic wave is measured to have a frequency of 4.7x1013Hz. Calculate its wavelength and identify the type of wave.
18 Things wave model of light cannot explain Black-Body radiationEmission of light from hot objects2) Photoelectric effectEmission of electrons from metal surfaces on which light shines3) Emission line spectra- Emission of light from electronically excited gasesi.e. tungsten metal emits brightwhite light when heatedi.e. red glow of electric stoveburner
19 Quantum ConceptMax Planck said energy can be either released or absorbed by atoms ONLY in discrete “chunks” of some minimum energyQuantum meaning “fixed amount” is the smallest quantity of energy that can be emitted or absorbed as electromagnetic radiation
20 Quantum ConceptThe ball can only have certain amounts of potential energy when at rest.The potential energy of the ball at rest is quantized.
21 Like a set of stairs, the energy states of an electron is quantized – i.e. electrons are only found on a specific stepThe ramp is an example of a continuous situation in which any energy state is possible up the ramp
22 Einstein used quantum theory to explain photoelectric effect. Photocell - emitted electrons are drawn toward positive terminal creating an electrical circuitWhen photons of significant high energy strike a metal surface – electrons are emitted from the metal
23 Energy of quantum = Planck’s constant x frequency Quantum ConceptPlanck proposed that the energy (E) of a single quantum is equal to a constant (Planck’s constant (h)) times the frequency of the radiation.Planck’s constant = h = 6.626x10-34 Joule-second (Js)Energy of quantum = Planck’s constant x frequencyE = h v
24 Practice ExercisesA laser emits light with a frequency of 4.69x1014 s-1. How much energy is emitted from one quantum of the radiation from this laser?Calculate the energy of one photon (quantum) of yellow light whose wavelength is 589nm.
25 Matter can only gain or lose energy in small specific amounts. Quantum Minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom.
26 Homework Book Questions Read, notes, and vocabulary for 6.26.9, 6.13, 6.15, 6.17, 6.18
27 Quantum Concept Glowing light emitted by hot objects As the object is heated it gains energy…As the object gains it changes colors (emits different colors)
28 EM Spectrum Drawing Where is red in the rainbow? Why? Where is violet in rainbow? Why?Pick something to draw.You are given the wavelengths of each color (on sheet)Determine a scale that you are going to use to drawConvert nm to mmConvert wavelengths of each color to frequencyConvert frequency to energy (think Planck)All work must be shown on back to receive credit
29 Planck Proposed that emitted light was quantized Energy of a quantum is related to the frequency of the emitted radiationE (quantum) = h vE=energyH= planck’s constantV= frequency
30 Wave or Particle?Electromagnetic radiation behaves sometimes like a wave and sometimes like a stream of particles.
31 Photoelectric Effect Beam of light has many wave like characteristics… It can also be thought of as stream of tiny particles or bundles of energyPhotonsParticle of electromagnetic radiation with no mass that carries a quantum of enrgyE (photon) = h v
32 Atomic Emission Spectrum Set of frequencies of the electromagnetic waves emitted by the atoms of the elementEach element’s atomic emission spectrum is uniqueUsed to determine unknowns (forensics)
33 5.1 WorksheetComplete 5.1 worksheet using only your notes.
34 Interactions of LightWhen light strikes a new medium, the light can be reflected, absorbed, or transmitted.When light is transmitted, it can be refracted, polarized, or scattered.