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# Elements & Principles of Design

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Elements & Principles of Design
Prince Andrew High School

Elements of Design The Designer uses the following Elements of Design
Space Line Shape Form Colour Value Texture Can you think of words to describe what you see to the right?

Space Is the area the artist works on.
It can be paper, clay, canvas, walls, etc. It has two characteristics: positive…the object negative… the voided area surrounding the object.

Line Is a continuous mark. It has five characteristics: length width
curvature depth texture

Shape Is an enclosed line.
It has height and width and is usually considered flat…2-D. There are four basic shapes circle square rectangle triangle

Form Is two or more shapes combined. It has height, width, and depth.
It is considered 3-D and you usually can walk around and/or through it. There are four forms Sphere Cone Cubes Cylinder

Color Hue is another word for color. There are:
3 Primary colors 3 Secondary colors 6 Intermediate colors placed evenly around the basic color wheel.

Primary Colors Yellow is at 4 o’clock * * Blue is at 8 o’clock *
Red is at 12 o’clock * Placed every fourth space away. These cannot be made by combining other colors.

Secondary Colors The formula for a Secondary is P + P = S
Blue + Red = Violet at 10 o’clock Yellow + Blue = Green at 6 o’clock Red + Yellow = Orange at 2 o’clock

Intermediate Colors The formula for an Intermediate color is P+S = I
R+O = RED ORANGE at 1 o’clock Y+O = YELLOW ORANGE at 3 o’clock Y+G = YELLOW GREEN at 5 o’clock B+G = BLUE GREEN at 7 o’clock B+V = BLUE VIOLET at 9 o’clock R+V = RED VIOLET at 11 o’clock

Tertiary Mixing two secondary colors together create browns
Orange + Green = Yellow Brown (Amber) Green + Violet = Green Brown (Olive) Violet + Orange = Red Brown (Rust) The formula for a Tertiary is S + S = T

Color Schemes Monochromatic - different values of the same color. Color + white, gray or black Complementary - two colors opposite each other on the color wheel. Analogous colors next to each other on the color wheel that have a family resemblance. Triadic - are three colors evenly spaced on the wheel forming a triangle. Warm colors are red, orange and yellow. Cool colors are green, blue and violet.

Value Is the lightness and darkness of a color or neutral gray.
White added to a color is a tint. Gray added to a color is a tone. Black added to a color is a shade. These are called Neutrals.

Texture The feel of a surface. There are two kinds: Actual or real
usually made by nature Implied or fake usually created by man

Principles of Design Balance Repetition Contrast Movement Emphasis
Unity

Balance Equilibrium There are two kinds
the feeling of being comfortable in artwork. Where the Elements are placed in the picture in a way so they have equal weight. There are two kinds Symmetrical or formal balance which is objects centered Asymmetrical or informal balance which is more objects on one side or off centered

Repetition Is repeated element Also known as Pattern varied in size,
shape or color Also known as Pattern

Contrast The opposite or varied elements that make an art work interesting. Such as color, thick or thin lines, large or small shapes, rough or smooth texture,etc.

Movement The path our eyes follow in art work.
Usually it brings the viewer in, around, and through the piece. Also known as Rhythm

Emphasis Drawing attention to the main object.
All elements; like line, color, and shapes, direct your eye to the main point.

Unity Oneness … makes all the elements and principals work together to form a piece of art. Also called Harmony

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