Presentation on theme: "South Africa Life Under Apartheid"— Presentation transcript:
1 South Africa Life Under Apartheid Questions to Consider: How do new ideas change the way people live?Student Objective: Students will know that South Africa is rich in natural resources, and will be able to describe how these resources have influenced the colonization by Europeans. Students will be able to discuss how the resources led to the apartheid movement in South Africa and the cultural changes in the area.Learning Target: I will be able to discuss the causes of the colonization in Southern Africa by European countries, and the apartheid movement and equal rights in South Africa.
2 History of South Africa For more than 1,500 years Native Africans controlled the area now known as South AfricaThe largest tribe/ethnic group in the area were the ZuluIn 1652 Dutch explorers established the colony of Cape ColonyEven though they were recent immigrants, they began claiming the land as their ownOver the course of time, the Dutch settlers began to branch out, taking more land and becoming farmersThey fought with Native Africans over the fertile farmlands of South Africa and forced the natives to work as servants and slavesThese Dutch colonizers became known as the Boers (Afrikaners are the descendants of the Boers)
3 The arrival of the Dutch colonizer Jan van Riebeeck, the first European to settle in South Africa
4 History of South Africa During the early 1800’s British colonizers came to set up their own colony, and a conflict began between the Boers (Dutch) and the BritishThe British won, but two separate states were formed, one Boer and one BritishBoers in combat (1881)
5 The South African War or the Boer War (1899-1902) When diamonds and gold were discovered in large quantities in South Africa in 1899, British interest peaked even higher in the regionThe British and the Boers engaged in war for winner take all in the areaThe Zulu Tribe (The largest group of Native South Africans) took the side of the BritishThe Zulu hoped that if the British were to win they could gain equal rights with the removal of the Boer presenceThis did not happen
6 British Colonialism: Life on Reserves The British forced black South Africans off their mineral rich land and made them live on land they though had little value, called “reserves”These reserves took up only 13% of the land, even though blacks made up 68% of the populationLife on the reserves was hardThe government built few factories, modern roads, schools and hospitals on the reservesThe land was horrible, which made farming impossibleWithout the ability to farm Native South Africans became dependent on white South AfricansMost of the natives had to leave their reserves to find workBlack South Africans became servants, laborers, and other lower paying positions
7 Apartheid in South Africa (Click the title to watch the video clip) In 1948, the racist Nationalist Party was elected to powerThe new government combined all the poor treatment of black South Africans into an official policy called apartheidApartheid (separateness) was the system by which there was legal racial segregation in South AfricaThis racist policy denied blacks and other non-whites social and economic equality with whites
8 "For use by white persons" – sign from the apartheid era
9 “Reserved for the sole use of the white race” in English, Afrikaans & Zulu
10 Apartheid in South Africa (Click on the title to play video) Above all, white South Africans set up the system of Apartheid to make sure the black majority did not gain any power.Under Apartheid, Black South Africans lost many of their basic human rights (write down a couple)They were told where to live (reserves)They were forced to carry ID cards when they traveledThey could not vote (No Suffrage)They were paid less wages than whites that held the same jobThey received separate & inferior education, medical care and other public servicesMixed Marriage was also made illegal under apartheid
11 The African National Congress In 1912, the African National Congress was formed by a group of black Africans that opposed apartheid in South AfricaBlack South Africans resisted apartheid by:Participating in non violent protest marchesWorker strikesRefusing to buy white products (boycotts)Going into “whites only” areasPracticing civil disobedience (breaking laws)Creating resistance art as an expression of their struggles
12 Resistance ArtIs a form of art that emerged in South Africa in the mid-1970s after many uprisings that focused on the resisting apartheid and celebrating the African strength and unity.Malcolm Payne Gorilla, 1985
13 Nelson MandelaIn the 1950’s a great leader arose from the African National Congress (ANC), Nelson MandelaEventually, the government banned the ANCThe government started arresting it’s members and breaking up protests with deadly military forceThese actions made Mandela feel that non-violent resistance, in which he had always believed, was useless against the South African government
14 Nelson MandelaAlong with other freedom fighters, Nelson Mandela began a campaign of sabotage against military and government targetsNelson Mandela was arrested and imprisoned in 1963Although he would stay in prison for the next 27 years, he became a symbol of the injustices of apartheidPeople around the world knew his name and would eventually demand his freedom
16 The End of ApartheidWorker strikes in particular had a negative impact on the economy and forced the government to change some apartheid laws in the 1970’s and 1980’sIn addition, in 1985 several world nations began imposing economic sanctions against South Africa (Boycotts & Trade Embargo)A sanction is a measure taken by nations against a country violating international law
17 Apartheid Ends (Click on the title to watch the video) Willem de Klerk, a white South African who opposed apartheid, became president in 1989He helped repeal many apartheid laws and to release from jail those who had worked to fight against apartheidIn 1990, he helped obtain Nelson Mandela’s release from prisonTogether, Nelson Mandela and Willem de Klerk worked to end apartheid for goodIn 1993, they shared the Nobel peace prize for their efforts
18 Willem de Klerk & Nelson Mandela Nelson Mandela is shown voting for the first time in his life on April 27, 1994.
19 A New Era for south Africa In 1993, a new constitution gave all adults the right to voteNelson Mandela was elected as South Africa’s 1st black president, served one five-year term, and retired in 1999Today, the constitution of South Africa guarantees the same rights to everyone in South AfricaDue to it’s vast natural resources, mining operations and jobs in manufacturing, South Africa has developed into one of the strongest economies in all of AfricaHowever, many black South Africans remain very poorThe government is working to provide better housing and to bring electricity and water to communities without them
20 Wrap Up What was apartheid? Who was Nelson Mandela? What did people like Nelson Mandel do in an effort to end apartheid?How did some of the black south Africans express their desire to end apatheid?What is South Africa like today?