Presentation on theme: "Application of Computers in Education IT in Schools."— Presentation transcript:
Application of Computers in Education IT in Schools
Application of Computers in Education Topics The Possibilities The Change –Across districts, schools –Within schools Hardware Software Humanware The Progress The Road ahead
Application of Computers in Education The Possibility Extend the school boundaries Paradigm Shift – teacher-centred to student-centred –Project-based learning –Problem-based learning Promote Interaction and Communication Technologise education –Presentation Learn IT versus Learn to use IT
Application of Computers in Education The change Across districts, schools –Edupark – Shenzhen and Hong Kong http://www2.fed.cuhk.edu.hk/ITED/AppOfComp/Present/edupark.ppt A cautionary note of Web-based collaborative learning: The experience of Edupark.A cautionary note of Web-based collaborative learning: The experience of Edupark –Active World – USA and Hong Kong http://www.activeworlds.com http://www.activeworlds.com – 探路者 Pathfinder http://pathfinder.ntntc.edu.tw/http://pathfinder.ntntc.edu.tw/ – 亞卓市 Educity http://www.educities.edu.tw/http://www.educities.edu.tw/ –Webquest http://www.webquest.org http://course.fed.cuhk.edu.hk/community/webquest/
Application of Computers in Education The Change in Schools Hardware Software Humanware –School practice –Teaching practice –Student expectation –Parent expectation
Application of Computers in Education Hardware Change Computer Availability Network (broadband or dialup) Others – video projectors,.. Easiest to accomplish
Application of Computers in Education Hardware Change We must not confuse the presence of "sound and fury" - cables, monitors or Internet "drops" - with real change. We must not assume that dozens of hours on the Internet will enhance student literacy, improve inferential reasoning or replace older information technologies such as books. We cannot expect that laptops will transform students into better writers simply by virtue of possession. Real change requires much more than the purchase of good equipment. change and progress -- not all change is for the good … even good ideas can flounder and innovations founder, according to Fullan, when implementation plans ignore school realities. High on his list of realities would be the factors combining to frustrate or derail most change efforts. Jamie McKenzie (1999). Beware the Shallow Waters! The Dangers of Ignoring History and the Research on Change in Schools. From Now On The Educational Technology Journal Vol 8|No 9|June|1999
Application of Computers in Education When schools put the cart before the horse, spending most of their money on equipment and networking rather than professional development, program development, technical support and the “total cost of ownership,” (van Dam, 1999), they are likely to wake up with little to show for their hefty investment. Education or Technology?
Application of Computers in Education Software Student Administrative System, e.g. WebCT http://www.cuhk.edu.hk/wbt/webctce/demo.htm http://www.cuhk.edu.hk/wbt/webctce/demo.htm MMLC Computer-assisted Learning Systems Simulation WWW
Application of Computers in Education Humanware Administrators Teachers Students Parents
Application of Computers in Education Administrators Promote IT versus resistant to IT IT Coordinators Attitude towards IT in Ed – hardware or humanware Their IT knowledge –What do school administrators use the Internet for “look-up” -- “not many.” Or better yet, “not enough to provide leadership.” James Cisek. Looking in the Mirror—An Educator's houghts on Education. TECHNOS Quarterly For Education and Technology Vol. 10, No. 2, Summer 2001
Application of Computers in Education Teachers Daily Press Realities Role Change School Culture
Application of Computers in Education Teachers Daily Press the need to take care of moment to moment classroom pressures -- a obstacle It creates: –enforces a short term perspective and an emphasis upon coping –isolates teachers from dialogue with colleagues –exhausts them - leaving little left for special efforts and sprints –limits opportunities for reflection –makes them dependent upon what they already know and prone to following routines
Application of Computers in Education Subjective Realities –"the typical situation of teachers is fixity." –"there is little room for change" and "when change is imposed from outside, it is bitterly resented." –"there is a strong tendency for people to adjust to the 'near occasion' of change by changing as little as possible." (pp. 35-36) Objective Realities –materials and/or equipment –teaching and/or learning strategies –belief systems Many schools have spent their entire technology budget on hardware and infrastructure. The most successful implementations will devote major funding to professional development designed to help staff modify their teaching strategies, learning strategies and belief systems
Application of Computers in Education Change of Teachers’ Role Paradigm Shift – from Teacher-centred to Student-centred From knowledge provider to facilitator
Application of Computers in Education 學校本身的風氣形成一套教學理論，資訊科 技其實是另一套新的教學理論，若前者未能 看到後者的價值，便會形成強大的阻力。 School Culture
Application of Computers in Education Students Active Learning and collaboration expected There are twice as many interactions in front of the computer compared with other activities. Most of this interaction is concerned with problem-solving, and there are hardly any interactions which do not concern the task (Svensson, 2000). Learn generic knowledge as well as subject-specific knowledge Authentic learning environment -- motivated
Application of Computers in Education Parents Agree with the new learning paradigm?
Application of Computers in Education Buying lots of equipment without addressing the daily press is a dangerous strategy. Making robust use of networked computers requires many demanding changes from teachers that they are unlikely to welcome or embrace unless the district has provided some relief from the daily press On Change
Application of Computers in Education Basic Principles to Guide Change Efforts 1.requires a focus on a purpose likely to win broad acceptance. promise outcomes and benefits that match the daily realities, concerns and desires of the staff. Teachers want to know how this venture will improve student performance. We too often network because it is “the thing to do.” Teachers usually look askance at such efforts. 2.demands the cultivation and engagement of the key stakeholders within the school community, especially the classroom teachers. 3.involves a strategic and balanced deployment of resources – professional development, technical support 4.necessitates time away from the “daily press” of teaching. McKenzie, 2000
Application of Computers in Education The Progress 資訊科技教育計劃「進度初檢」研究（ 2000 年 12 月至 2001 年 8 月） Mckenzie, J. (1999). Beware the Shallow Waters: The Dangers of Ignoring History and the Research on Change in Schools. http://www.fno.org/jun99/teach.html http://www.fno.org/jun99/teach.html
Application of Computers in Education Key Foci in the ITEd initiatives (HK) ICT infrastructure (access and connectivity) –schools with a high student:computer ratio –good connectivity Resource support: both human and funding supports to schools for ITEd coordination and for building up teamwork in school level IT activities teacher enablement. –all teachers : basic level of technical competence by 2001 –most teachers : able to develop multimedia resources –small portion : fluent in network administration and technically highly competent in IT.
Application of Computers in Education Access and connectivity (HK) many more teachers' own computers students either own their computers or are allowed to use the computers, most of these computers are connected to Internet. One video projector has become the dominant peripheral in schools. Pilot schools have an exceptionally high availability of hardware and peripherals. the situation of hardware and resources planning in other schools was found to be quite homogeneous, indicating the modeling effect of the pilot schools in this area is limited.
Application of Computers in Education In USA 37 percent of classrooms not connected to the Internet (Education Week, 2001, 51) Ratio of students to Internet-connected computer, estimated to be about 8 to 1 (Education Week, 2001, 49). imply that the typical student is able to access the Internet no more than one period per day. the average student used school computers one hour or less per week versus five hours of home computer usage. Among those who attended so-called high-tech schools, only 23 percent used computers at least five hours per week in school (Harris Interactive, 2001, 4). This may not be a serious problem for students in that only 7 percent said computer use was extremely important to how well they do in school (Harris Interactive, 2001, 14).
Application of Computers in Education Teacher Enablement the most preferred mode of training is “workshops and demonstrations” and the least preferred mode is “conferences and seminars”. Over 70% of the teachers indicate that their use of computers in teaching is mainly preparing teaching notes and course materials. Many teachers are keen to learn to communicate with students over email, but not many feel the need to learn Internet for collaborative work with other schools.
Application of Computers in Education Most teachers are able to master word processing, spreadsheet, presentation software and Internet usage skills and regarded them as most important. On the other hand, most teachers are less familiar with advanced multimedia and web site design and regard them as least important. From the teachers' perspective, it is questionable whether the advanced technical IT skills are important to teaching and learning. Most teacher development courses were conducted in a traditional didactic mode of training, Not find the sensitivity of pedagogy or the promotion of different ways of using IT in different subjects.
Application of Computers in Education Teacher Use Technology in USA Teachers actually employ computers very little in day-to-day practice. A NetDay survey (2001) indicating that only 20 percent of teachers used the Internet to communicate with parents and only 18 percent posted lesson plans online. For those who have Internet access, 60 % spent less than 30 minutes online each day (which is less than the average user). Those least professionally engaged –more transmission-oriented in their teaching philosophy –far less likely to use computers in learner-centered ways
Application of Computers in Education Schwab and Foa (2001) summed it up well: “[T]here are still many more thousands of teachers who, while they know how to do word processing or even search the Internet, don’t have the slightest clue how to truly integrate technology into their teaching. The problem for educators nationwide is how to scale up effective training to reach tens of thousands of teachers quickly.” Michael Molenda and Michael Sullivan Technology in Education: The Boom Is Behind Us. TECHNOS Quarterly For Education and Technology Vol. 10, No. 3, Fall 2001
Application of Computers in Education Teacher Spectrum in a school Early adopters : 25% Late adopters : 40 - 60% (reluctant and resistant) In between : 20 - 40% (welcome new technology, but expect answers.) McKenzie,J.(1999). Strategic Deployment of Hardware to Maximize Readiness, Staff Use and Student Achievement. From Now On, the Educational Technology Journal. Vol 8 No 8 May.[WWW document]
Application of Computers in Education Note on Late Adopters what works for pioneers does not work for the later group, they want proof of results before they use, they have little tolerance for change and unwilling to shift time tested behaviour, they expect a complete package, a total solution which is user friendly, complete and well-supported.
Application of Computers in Education Students (USA) Spent much more time and effort focusing on technology-related skills than exploring meaningful content (Moss, 2000) Teachers viewed the environment as teaching and learning with technology, but students viewed it as learning about technology (Lundeberg, 1997).
Application of Computers in Education HK Students Experience from Edupark – Low motivation if no incentives Examination oriented Assessment
Application of Computers in Education Paradigm Shift (HK) The analysis of school documents and plans shows that schools do not fully grasp this message, nor do they have a good understanding of the meaning of “developing lifelong learning abilities in students”. The most popular aim for implementing IT, as reflected in the school plans, was to use ICT as a tool to enhance the ability of teachers to present information effectively/interestingly. There is a lack of interest in the school aim to develop students’ information skills for IT.
Application of Computers in Education most popular activities in schools are those using ICT as an expository tool for the teacher, Many schools regard IT in education as an effort to technologize education - simply replacing chalk and board by multimedia presentations/animations.
Application of Computers in Education the implementation did not make any noticeable progress in terms of its impact on teaching and learning in achieving the government’s vision of developing “in our students the attitude and capability for independent life- long learning” and hence “become more motivated, inquisitive and creative learners” (Education and Manpower Bureau, 1998). In fact, the lack of noticeable progress in achieving these goals can be attributed to the fact that the 5-year Strategy document’s description of “paradigm shift” was rather amorphous and the strategies employed in the implementation were in fact implicitly much more supportive of expository modes of teaching than other modes of pedagogy. Agree?
Application of Computers in Education The government should also make serious efforts to communicate to school principals, teachers, parents and other members of the education community an appropriate understanding of the goal and nature of this initiative, that this should go in tandem with the curriculum reform that the government is trying to bring about and that the process requires a fundamental change in the role of the teacher and the learner. The government machinery has been very effective in promoting the technologizing of education. It would be very desirable that it now shifts its focus to promote the technology supported re-engineering of education. Agree?
Application of Computers in Education In fact, this study reveals that how far computers and internet access are distributed and made available for students are much more important for supporting learning activities that aim to develop students’ lifelong learning abilities.
Application of Computers in Education In terms of curriculum resources, the emphasis should move away from the introduction and sharing of expository demonstration materials closely mirroring the textbooks to the introduction of resources that are well- grounded on sound cognitive/educational research. Teachers should be discouraged from spending time on the production of demonstration/expository materials to putting their efforts on learning about computer supported tools and environments that help to extend the kinds of learning activities available to students or to help students to learn concepts and skills that would otherwise be inaccessible. Agree?
Application of Computers in Education The Road Ahead Improve computer and Internet access? Curriculum Reform? Convey the concept of Paradigm Shift to wider public? Teacher IT competency? Student IT competency?
Application of Computers in Education Teachers’ IT Competency Levels Purpose: Use IT in classroom or software developers? Content appropriate? Should be revised?
Application of Computers in Education IT in Education – The Road Ahead The New 5-year strategy
Application of Computers in Education 探路者 Pathfinder http://pathfinder.ntntc.edu.tw/ 亞卓市 Educity http://www.educities.edu.tw/http://www.educities.edu.tw/ 李芳樂, 林智中 (2001). 資訊科技時代 — 教育信念的改變. 香港電腦教育學會二十週年紀念特刊. 香港電腦教育學會 The American Social History Project http://www.ashp.cuny.edu/ The Learning Web: Curriculum Projects Using the Internet http://www.esu3.k12.ne.us/institute/tech.html WebQuests - Triton/Patterns - Fall Symposium 98 http://projects.edtech.sandi.net/staffdev/tpfs98/ James Cisek. Looking in the Mirror—An Educator's houghts on Education. TECHNOS Quarterly For Education and Technology Vol. 10, No. 2, Summer 2001 Lundeberg, M. A., Coballes-Vega, C., Standiford, S. N., Langer, L., & Dibble, K. (1997). We thing they’re learning: beliefs, practices, and reflections of two teachers using project-based learning. Journal of Computing in childhood education, 8:1, 59-81. Mckenzie, J. (1999). Beware the Shallow Waters: The Dangers of Ignoring History and the Research on Change in Schools. http://www.fno.org/jun99/teach.htmlhttp://www.fno.org/jun99/teach.html Mckenzie, J. (2000). Making Good Change Happen. From Now On: The Educational Technology Journal Vol 9|No 10|June|2000. Michael Molenda and Michael Sullivan Technology in Education: The Boom Is Behind Us. TECHNOS Quarterly For Education and Technology Vol. 10, No. 3, Fall 2001 Moss, D.M. (2000). Bringing together technology and students: Examining the use of technology in a project-based class. Svensson, A. (2000). Computers in school: socially isolating or a tool to promote collaboration. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 22(4), 437-453. References: