2 Definition: this refers to the extent to which tumor cells different from their origin normal cells. obviously: poor differentiation, malignantslightly: well differentiation, benign
3 1. Atypia of tumor tissue structure benign tumor: slightly change in pattern, including structuremalignant tumor: obviously, disorderarrangement, direction, cell layers, and cell rank order.
4 2. Atypia of tumor cells Benign tumor: slightly Malignant tumor: obviously(1) Pleomorphism: of tumor cellsVariation in size and shapeSome extremely small and primitive appearingSome many times larger than their neighbors, even tumor giant cells
5 (2) Pleomorphism of nuclei ① Large nuclear the nuclear to cytoplasmicratio may approach 1:1 (the normal 1:4~6)② Hyperchromatic dark staining (containingabundance of DNA)③ Sometimes have two nuclei, even multinuclei giant cell.④ The nuclear shape is usually variable.
6 ⑤ Numerous mitosesthe most important is appear atypical, bizarre mitotic figures as non- symmetry, tripolar, quadripolar, multipolar spindles and abortion types pathologic mitoses.⑥ Nuclear membrane became thickthe chromatin is often coarsely clumped⑦ Large nucleoli
10 non- symmetry(left), tripolar(middle), and abortion types(right) of pathologic mitoses.
11 3. Atypia of tumor ultrastructure The difference mainly in quantity compared with normal cells(1) Large nuclei and nucleoli, irregular shape, and multiply.(2) Heterochromatin increase, coarsely clumped and distributed along the nuclear membrane.(3) Mitochondrion, endoplasmic reticulum, andGolgi complex hypogenesis, abnormal shape and decreased number.
12 (4) More dissociative nuclein (5) More lysosomes(6) The cellular junction decrease(7) Microvillus: variation in shape, number, and arrange mount