Presentation on theme: "Petroleum. Consumption By 2008 U.S. = world's third-largest oil producer 8.5 million barrels of oil and natural gas liquids per day Petroleum is the largest."— Presentation transcript:
Consumption By 2008 U.S. = world's third-largest oil producer 8.5 million barrels of oil and natural gas liquids per day Petroleum is the largest source of energy in the U.S. 38% of the energy consumed gasoline diesel fuel heating oil petroleum gas 24% natural gas
Top sources of net crude oil and petroleum product imports: Canada (28%) Saudi Arabia (13%) Mexico (10%) Venezuela (9%) Russia (5%)
Petroleum Reserve 727-million-barrels the largest stockpile of government-owned emergency crude oil in the world. aftermath of the 1973-74 oil embargo emergency oil stocks national defense fuel reserve.
Gasoline Gas prices have increased tremendously cost of the crude oil Higher demand 2008 – prices dropped to below $2 due to demand three main grades of gasoline: regular, midgrade, and premium.
Gasoline and the Environment Burning gasoline produces carbon dioxide Gasoline is a highly flammable and toxic liquid Substances: carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, and unburned hydrocarbons Burning a gallon of gasoline produces about 19.6 pounds of carbon dioxide. In 2012, 21% of total U.S. carbon dioxide emissions.
Clean Air Act the major law aimed at reducing air pollution aimed to reduce pollution from gasoline use by requiring less polluting engines and fuels and reduce leaks from storage and fueling equipment. emissions control devices and cleaner burning engines removal of leaded gasoline reformulated gasoline low sulfur gasoline reduced risk of gasoline leaks
Oil Drilling Oil Spill other chemicals and toxic substances come up too Offshore drilling Seismic waves infrastructure required = drill wells and transportation BP Spill 2010 = the biggest oil spill in U.S. history. 16,000 total miles of coastline affected explosion killed 11 people and injured 17 others. Over 8,000 animals (birds, turtles, mammals) were reported dead As of 2012, the Gulf was still polluted with oil.
Natural Gas Methane = a gas composed of one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms
Hydraulic Fracturing Also known as “Fracking” extracts oil by blasting water mixed with sand and chemicals underground to break apart shale rock. gas flows up through the well to the surface of the ground and into large pipelines. methane, butane, and propane Most of the natural gas consumed in the United States is produced in the United States. Because natural gas is colorless, odorless, and tasteless, mercaptan (a chemical that smells like sulfur – rotten eggs) is added before distribution, in cases where leaks occur.
Natural gas cumsption About 25% of energy used in the United States came from natural gas in 2012. Natural gas is used to produce: steel glass paper clothing brick electricity essential raw material more than half of the homes in the United States use natural gas as their main heating fuel. Natural gas is also used in homes to fuel stoves, water heaters, clothes dryers, and other household appliances.
Dangers of Fracking Natural gas is made up mostly of methane Some natural gas leaks into the atmosphere from oil and gas wells, storage tanks, pipelines, and processing plants. These leaks were the source of about 25% of total U.S. methane emissions The oil and natural gas industry tries to prevent gas leaks Well drilling activities produce air pollution and may disturb wildlife. Natural gas production can also result in the production of large volumes of contaminated water. While the natural gas may a very toxic gas. Natural gas wells and pipelines often have engines to run equipment and compressors, which produce additional air pollutants and noise.