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The Back and Material Handling Issues

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Presentation on theme: "The Back and Material Handling Issues"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Back and Material Handling Issues

2 The Spinal Column Cervical Thoracic Lumbar

3 The Basic Structure

4 Epidemiology of Back Injuries
Short Term or acute effects: Sharp Surfaces Dropped Material Struck-by Moving Materials Mechanical Stress Slips and Falls “Simpler” Cause and effect relationship

5 Epidemiology Chronic or Long Term Effects Back Ache or Pain
Disc Degeneration Cause and effect not as simple, more difficult to analyze

6 Return to Work Out more than 6 months only 50% chance of returning
One year only 25% Management and Practitioner Training One study showed that claims dropped from 200K to 20K per year by providing modified work and conservative treat

7 Material Handling Lifting/Lowering Pushing/Pulling Carrying
Weights and Forces Frequency of Activities Load Center of Gravity

8 Material Handling

9 Job Risk Factors Weight of the Object
Location (position of load w.r.t. worker) Frequency of Lifts Stability of the Load Hand Coupling Workplace Geometry Twisting/Stooping Environmental Factors

10 Personal Risk Factors Gender Age Anthropometry Lift technique Attitude
Strength Training

11 Examples of Manual Handling Controls
Avoid extreme range of motion when lifting Redesign work station/work area to allow freedom of movement Provide handles on material handling equipment Provide lift-assist devices and tables Unit Load Concept

12 Job Design Can reduce one-third of compensable LBP
Minimize reach and lift distances Keep off floor Work station design Frequency Relax time standard Rotation Work-Rest allowances

13 Job Design Minimize Weight Mechanical aids Carton capacity
Balance contents Convert Carry to push/pull Push over pull Use large wheels

14 Training Focus on awareness and avoidance
Get object as close to body as possible Planning Use of handling aids Back Schools Strength and fitness important

15 NIOSH Lifting Equation 1991 Version

16 NIOSH Lifting Equation
Objective: Reduce occurrence of lifting-related LBP 1981 and 1991 equations 1981 limited to sagittal plane 1991 includes asymmetry and coupling

17 Disqualifiers for Use One handed lifts More than 8 hours
Seated or kneeling Restricted work space Unstable Objects Carrying, pushing or pulling while lifting Wheelbarrows or shovels High speed motion Unreasonable foot/floor coupling Unfavorable environment

18 Definition of Terms RWL = Recommended weight limit LC = Load constant
HM = Horizontal multiplier VM = Vertical multiplier DM = Distance multiplier AM = Asymmetric multiplier FM = Frequency multiplier CM = Coupling multiplier

19 RWL = LC x HM x VM x DM x AM x FM x CM
1991 Equation RWL = LC x HM x VM x DM x AM x FM x CM

20 1991 Guide Compare RWL to Actual Load (L)
If Greater than or equal to 1 problem

21 Lifting Index L RWL

22 1991 Multipliers LC = 51 Pounds HM = 10/H VM = 1-.0075 x / V-30/
DM = (1.8/D) AM = 1 – (.0032 x A) FM go to Table CM go to Table

23 NIOSH Worksheet

24 Lifting Example

25 NIOSH Workshop

26 NIOSH Workshop Start of Lift End of Lift

27 NIOSH 1991 Lifting Calculator

28 WISHA Calculator for Analyzing Lifting Operations


30 WISHA Workshop

31 WISHA If the job is a hazard Reduce weight of load
Increase weight of load so that it requires mechanical assist Reduce the capacity of the container Etc.

32 References Applications guide for the revised NIOSH lifting equation – On CD Elements of Ergonomic Programs – On CD Musculoskeletal Disorders and Workplace Factors – On CD Work Practices Guide for Manual Lifting NIOSH References continue on next slide

33 What does the worker need to know from this presentation?

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