4 Epidemiology of Back Injuries Short Term or acute effects:Sharp SurfacesDropped MaterialStruck-by Moving MaterialsMechanical StressSlips and Falls“Simpler” Cause and effect relationship
5 Epidemiology Chronic or Long Term Effects Back Ache or Pain Disc DegenerationCause and effect not as simple, more difficult to analyze
6 Return to Work Out more than 6 months only 50% chance of returning One year only 25%Management and Practitioner TrainingOne study showed that claims dropped from 200K to 20K per year by providing modified work and conservative treat
7 Material Handling Lifting/Lowering Pushing/Pulling Carrying Weights and ForcesFrequency of ActivitiesLoad Center of Gravity
9 Job Risk Factors Weight of the Object Location (position of load w.r.t. worker)Frequency of LiftsStability of the LoadHand CouplingWorkplace Geometry Twisting/StoopingEnvironmental Factors
10 Personal Risk Factors Gender Age Anthropometry Lift technique Attitude StrengthTraining
11 Examples of Manual Handling Controls Avoid extreme range of motion when liftingRedesign work station/work area to allow freedom of movementProvide handles on material handling equipmentProvide lift-assist devices and tablesUnit Load Concept
12 Job Design Can reduce one-third of compensable LBP Minimize reach and lift distancesKeep off floorWork station designFrequencyRelax time standardRotationWork-Rest allowances
13 Job Design Minimize Weight Mechanical aids Carton capacity Balance contentsConvertCarry to push/pullPush over pullUse large wheels
14 Training Focus on awareness and avoidance Get object as close to body as possiblePlanningUse of handling aidsBack SchoolsStrength and fitness important
16 NIOSH Lifting Equation Objective: Reduce occurrence of lifting-related LBP1981 and 1991 equations1981 limited to sagittal plane1991 includes asymmetry and coupling
17 Disqualifiers for Use One handed lifts More than 8 hours Seated or kneelingRestricted work spaceUnstable ObjectsCarrying, pushing or pulling while liftingWheelbarrows or shovelsHigh speed motionUnreasonable foot/floor couplingUnfavorable environment
31 WISHA If the job is a hazard Reduce weight of load Increase weight of load so that it requires mechanical assistReduce the capacity of the containerEtc.
32 ReferencesApplications guide for the revised NIOSH lifting equation – On CDElements of Ergonomic Programs – On CDMusculoskeletal Disorders and Workplace Factors – On CDWork Practices Guide for Manual LiftingNIOSHReferences continue on next slide
33 What does the worker need to know from this presentation?