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UNIX Unbounded 5 th Edition Amir Afzal Chapter 1 First Things First.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIX Unbounded 5 th Edition Amir Afzal Chapter 1 First Things First."— Presentation transcript:


2 UNIX Unbounded 5 th Edition Amir Afzal Chapter 1 First Things First

3 Chapter 1 First Things First This chapter briefly describes the fundamentals of computer hardware and software and explains basic computer terms and concepts. It discusses the types of software, explains the importance of the operating system, and explores its primary functions.

4 Computers can be grouped according to their sizes, capabilities, and speed into four classifications, as follows: Supercomputers Mainframe computers Minicomputers Microcomputers These are rather arbitrary classifications: the low-end systems of one category can overlap the high-end systems of the other. 1.1 Computers: An Overview

5 Class TypicalSpecificationsApproximate Speed Microcomputer64+ million main memory cells 4 billion disk storage cells single user 10+ million instructions per second Minicomputer128+ million main memory cells 10 billion disk storage cells 1 tape drive 128 interactive users 30+ million instructions per second Mainframe1+ billion main memory cells 100 billion disk storage cells Multiple tape drives 100s interactive users 4+ central processing units or more 50+ million instructions per second Table 1.1: Computer Classifications

6 Figure 1-1: Four Functional Parts of a Computer System Certain devices can be used for either input or output for example, magnetic disks and touch screen terminals. 1.3 Computer Hardware

7 The Central Processing Unit (CPU) consists of three basic sections: Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) Registers Control Unit (CU) The CPU is also called the brain, heart, or thinking part of the computer. Computers usually have two types of main memory: Random access memory (RAM) Read only memory (ROM) Main memory is short term and retains data only for the period that a program is running. Processor Unit

8 Data Representation Bit (Binary Digit) Each bit can hold either a 0 or a 1. A bit is the smallest unit of information a computer can understand Byte A group of eight bits is called a byte (pronounced bite) ASCII When you input data to a computer, the system must change it from what you recognize (letters, numbers, and symbols) into some format that the computer understands Word Most computers are able to manipulate a group of bytes called a word. The word size is system dependent and could vary from 16 bits (2 bytes) to 32 bits (4 bytes) or even 64 bits (8 bytes)

9 The Memory Hierarchy Memory Size K stands for kilobytes, which represent 1,024 bytes of storage (2 to the power of 10) For example: 32K of memory means 32,768 bytes (32 times 1,024) Other measurements referring to the size of the computer memory: Megabyte (MB) is approximately one million bytes Gigabyte (GB) is approximately one billion bytes Terabytes (TB) is approximately one trillion bytes

10 StorageType LocationUsage Registers Within the CPU Very high-speed devicesCurrently executing instructions; instructions; part of the related data Primary StorageOutside of the CPU High-speed devices (RAM) Entire programs or part of the part of the associated data Secondary StorageLow-speed devices Electromagnetic or optical Programs not currently being executed; large amount of data Table 1.2: Summary of the Different Storage Types External Storage Secondary storage is an extension of main memory, not a replacement for it. A computer cannot execute a program or manipulate data stored on disk unless the data are first copied into main memory. Main memory holds the current programs and data, whereas secondary storage is for long-term storage.

11 Figure 1-4: Types of Software WHAT IS SOFTWARE? In general, computer programs are called software. Program A program is a set of instructions that directs the activities of a computer system. It consists of instructions that are logically sequenced to perform a specific operation. Software Categories: - system software- application software

12 Figure 1-5: User Interaction with Software Layers

13 Who Is the Boss? The operating system is the boss and is the most important system software component of a computer: It is a collection of programs that controls all hardware and software in a computer The necessary parts of the operating system are loaded into the main memory when you turn the computer on and remain there until you turn it off The operating system plays different roles as service provider, hardware manager, and facilitator of the user interface

14 The primary purposes and functions of an operating system: To provide an interface for users and application programs to low-level hardware functions To allocate hardware resources to users and their application programs To load and accept the application programs on behalf of the users The necessary parts of the operating system are always resident in the main memory. The operating system continually responds to the program’s resource requirements, resolves resource conflicts, and optimizes the allocation of resources

15 Operating System Model Viewing the operating system as a layered set of software: Kernel Layer The kernel is the innermost layer of the operating system software Service Layer The service layer accepts service requests from the command layer, or the application programs, and translates them into detailed instructions to the kernel. The service layer provides the following types of services: Access to I/O devices for example, the movement of data from an application to a printer or terminal Access to storage devices for example, the movement of data from a tape drive or a magnetic disk to an application program File manipulation for example, opening and closing files, reading from a file, and writing to a file Other services such as window management, access to communication networks, and basic database services

16 File manipulation for example, opening and closing files, reading from a file, and writing to a file Other services such as window management, access to communication networks, and basic database services Command Layer The command layer, also called the shell (because it is the outermost layer), provides the user interface and is the only part of the operating system with which users can interact directly

17 Figure 1-6: Operating System Layers

18 Some basic concepts and terminology describing the different operating systems and their environments: Single-Tasking A single-tasking (single-programming) operating system is designed to execute only one process at a time. Multitasking A multitasking (multiprogramming) operating system is capable of executing more than one program at a time for a user. Multiuser In a multiuser environment, more than one user (terminal) can use the same host computer. The multiuser operating system is complex software that provides services for all users concurrently. Operating Systems Environment

19 Figure 1-7: A Multiuser Computer System Chapter 1: First Things First

20 Figure 1-8: The Multiuser in a Network Environment

21 Thank you

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