Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Foregrounding Written Communication. Teaching Interactive Second Language Writing in Content- Based Classes Teachers should include a wide range."— Presentation transcript:
Teaching Interactive Second Language Writing in Content- Based Classes Teachers should include a wide range of writing types and tasks for all content areas in their long-term curricular planning.
Writing & Standards: Differences Between Foreign and Second Language Foreign language- emphasis on production of certain functional texts ESL - standards specify functional tasks in writing for each span of grades across three dimensions: social language, academic content, and culturally appropriate ways.
Integrating Technology & Writing Use technology for: Word processing (using tools including thesaurus, using templates for different genre, revision including find feature) Research (using search engines, refining skills for judging credibility, taking notes, citing references) Create reciprocity in learning across institutions and distance
Interactive Writing Instruction Prewriting Strategies for Getting Started Writing prompts Listing ideas Dialoguing Clustering Cubing Free writing
Interactive Writing Instruction Writers Workshop Interacting with peer’s draft essays Gathering information Judging quality of information Organization Making choices
Interactive Writing Instruction Writers Workshop Teachers provide: editing checklist (word choice, grammar, spelling, punctuation, capitalization) personalized guidance for weak areas style sheet for citation checksheet of necessary steps for task completion tools (dictionary, etc.)
Interactive Writing Instruction Writing Conferences Use a written text that the student has produced Ask questions related to: prewriting organizing drafting revising final product
Interactive Writing Instruction Writing Assessments Portfolio – writing selected depends on purpose: Formative – document progress Summative - showcase best work
Interactive Writing Instruction Writing Assessments Benefits: Makes students aware of important writing elements Demonstrates how students can control process Helps students/teachers identify where support is needed Allows learners to participate fully in the evaluation of their writing
Interactive Writing Instruction Teaching Diverse Learners Difficulties may arise from L1: Non-roman alphabet Directionality of writing (left to right, top to bottom) Different letter sounds Learners with strong L1 literacy will transfer these skills to L2
Research on Writing Psycholinguistic Research Examines cognitive processing needed to create texts Sociocultural Research Examines how writers understand the nature and purposes of writing Examines how writers construct knowledge,social relationships, and their identities through learning to write
Research on Writing Writing as Product Focus on writing from a composition and rhetorical perspective: Grammatical skills Paragraph skills – theme sentence, supporting sentences Paragraph functions: descriptive, how to, compare and contrast, persuasive Reports/Essays – outlining, revision,coherence, cohesion,perspective, genre, style, editing for grammar and mechanics
Research on Writing Writing as Product Texts written by ESL students show similar characteristics of development in distinguishing between oral and written genres compared to native English speakers
Research on Writing Writing as Product Textual analysis alone does not provide enough information to guide instruction. Quality of writing product can be influenced by student’s: Experience generating texts Background knowledge of topic Access to materials Experience working with time constraints
Research on Writing Writing as Process Evaluating the ELL writing process: Text-like or oral-like communication? Planning at the discourse or lexical level? Degree to which they draw information from reading?
Research on Writing Writing as Process Process writing – writing is broken down into discrete processes: 1) Generate ideas 2) Structure ideas 3) Produce a draft 4) Revise 5) Evaluate the process
Research on Writing Writing as Interactionally Accomplished Cultural Practice Help students develop their own voice by: Selecting topics with personal meaning Using a wide range of literature to demonstrate narrative elements and “story grammar” Creating opportunities for students to interact with their audience Modeling and encouraging reflective writing
Research on Writing Writing as Interactionally Accomplished Cultural Practice Provide a print-rich environment: Lists Charts Mind maps Graphs Daily logs Dialogue journals
Research on Writing Writing as Interactionally Accomplished Cultural Practice Promote Student Confidence and Authority in Personal Writing Encourage rather than correct Model correctness by restating incorrectly used or misstated words Encourage students to consult peers or dictionaries
Research on Writing Writing as Power Research on critical literacy – exposes how the use of language features serves particular social interests or ideologies. Students learn to interrogate and create texts for their own interests, becoming critical readers and critical writers.
Research on Writing Classification Who produced text Intended audience Why text was produced (Ir)relevance to self Political or economic consequences Word patterns used Agency Mood This activity is followed by action with and/or against the text. Writing as Power Text is evaluated as students determine:
Integrated Approach Knowing the language Communicative competence Individual abilities & preferences The social context Attitudes & motivation Opportunities for learning & practice Formal instructional contexts Processing factors Cultural variability Content & topical knowledge Discourse, genre and register knowledge Factors which influence how L2 learners write:
Purposes for Writing As a tool for learning: stores information in memory, prepares for reading or comprehension captures thoughts about what is read (expressive writing) To communicate for personal, social, academic purposes To inform, explain, instruct (transactional writing) To document memory or reflection