Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 5 Large Molecules are the Hallmark of Life.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Large Molecules are the Hallmark of Life."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 Large Molecules are the Hallmark of Life

2 Overview: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Within cells, small organic molecules are joined together to form larger molecules called macromolecules. Macromolecules are large molecules composed of thousands of covalently connected atoms Proteins, nucleic acids, lipids (as aggregates) and complex carbohydrates are the four classes of macromolecules in biological systems. Molecular structure and function are inseparable (structure determines function; function is dependent on structure; function is an emergent property based on structure)

3 Outline 5.1 Polymers 5.2 Carbohydrates 5.3 Lipids 5.4 Proteins 5.5 Nucleic acids

4 Concept 5.1: Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks These small building-block molecules are subunits called monomers Three of the four classes of life’s organic molecules are polymers: – Carbohydrates – Proteins – Nucleic acids

5 A condensation reaction or more specifically a dehydration reaction occurs when two monomers bond together through the loss of a water molecule Enzymes are macromolecules that speed up the dehydration process (and others) Polymers are disassembled to monomers by hydrolysis, a reaction that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction The Synthesis and Breakdown of Polymers

6 Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond Short polymer (oligomer) Unlinked monomer Longer polymer Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a polymer HO H2OH2O H H H 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 (a)

7 Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond Hydrolysis of a polymer HO H2OH2O H H H 3 2 1 1 23 4 (b)

8 The Diversity of Polymers Each cell has thousands of different kinds of macromolecules Macromolecules vary among cells of an organism, vary more within a species, and vary even more between species All living systems contain the same classes of polymers and macromolecules The exact identity of the large molecules is different from one cell to another 2 3 HOH

9 The Advantages of Polymer Construction Mass production-efficiency A vast number of polymers can be built from different combinations of a small set of monomers-variety 2 3 HOH

10 Concept 5.2: Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material Carbohydrates are sugars-including individual sugars and the polymers of sugars The simplest carbohydrates are called simple sugars or monosaccharides Monosaccharides can link together via condensation reactions to form disaccharides, trisaccharides, oligosaccharides, etc. Carbohydrate macromolecules are polysaccharides, polymers composed of many sugar building blocks

11 Sugars Monosaccharides have molecular formulas that are usually multiples of CH 2 O Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) is the most common monosaccharide Monosaccharides are classified by – The location of the carbonyl group – The number of carbons in the carbon skeleton

12 Some Examples Aldoses Glyceraldehyde Ribose GlucoseGalactose Hexoses (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Pentoses (C 5 H 10 O 5 )Trioses (C 3 H 6 O 3 )

13 Ketoses Dihydroxyacetone Ribulose Fructose Hexoses (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Pentoses (C 5 H 10 O 5 )Trioses (C 3 H 6 O 3 )

14 Though often drawn as linear skeletons, in aqueous solutions many sugars form rings

15 (a) Linear and ring forms of glucose (b) Abbreviated ring structure

16 A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage or glycoside bond

17 Maltose Glucose (a)Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of maltose- a disaccharide (b)Note position of glycoside bond 1–4 glycosidic linkage

18 (a)Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of sucrose-a different disaccharide (b)Note position of glycoside bond GlucoseFructose Sucrose 1–2 glycosidic linkage

19 Polysaccharides Polysaccharides, the polymers of sugars, have storage and structural roles The structure and function of a polysaccharide are determined by its sugar monomers and the positions of glycosidic linkages

20 Storage Polysaccharides Starch, a storage polysaccharide of plants, consists entirely of glucose monomers Plants store surplus starch as granules within chloroplasts and other plastids Alpha 1-4 and 1-6 bonds

21 Glycogen is a storage polysaccharide in animals Humans and other vertebrates store glycogen mainly in liver and muscle cells Alpha 1-4 and 1-6 bonds

22 (b) Glycogen: an animal polysaccharide Starch Glycogen Amylose Chloroplast (a) Starch: a plant polysaccharide Amylopectin Mitochondria Glycogen granules 0.5 µm 1 µm

23 Structural Polysaccharides The polysaccharide cellulose is a major component of the tough wall of plant cells Like starch, cellulose is a polymer of glucose, but the glycosidic linkages differ The difference is based on two ring forms for glucose: alpha (  ) and beta (  )

24 (a) Alpha and Beta glucose ring structures alpha Glucosebeta Glucose

25 (b) Starch: 1–4 linkage of alpha glucose monomers (c) Cellulose: 1–4 linkage of beta glucose monomers Note the different shapes

26 Polymers with  glucose are helical Polymers with  glucose are straight In straight structures, H atoms on one strand can bond with OH groups on other strands Parallel cellulose molecules held together this way are grouped into microfibrils, which form strong building materials for plants

27 b Glucose monomer Cellulose molecules Microfibril Cellulose microfibrils in a plant cell wall 0.5 µm 10 µm Cell walls

28 Starch is not a good component for structures

29 Enzymes that digest starch by hydrolyzing  linkages can’t hydrolyze  linkages in cellulose Cellulose in human food passes through the digestive tract as insoluble fiber Some microbes use enzymes to digest cellulose Cows and other organisms have microbes in their gut to hydrolyze cellulose

30 Chitin, another structural polysaccharide, is found in the exoskeleton of arthropods Chitin also provides structural support for the cell walls of many fungi The structure of the chitin monomer. Chitin forms the exoskeleton of arthropods. Chitin is used to make a strong and flexible surgical thread.

31 Sample question: Which of the following is an example of a polysaccharide Used for energy storage by plants? (a)Glycogen (b)Chitin (c)Cellulose (d)Amylose (e)Lactose

32 Concept 5.3: Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules Lipids are the one class of large biological molecules that do not form polymers The unifying feature of lipids is having little or no affinity for water Lipids are hydrophobic because  they consist mostly of hydrocarbons, which have nonpolar covalent bonds The most biologically important lipids are fats, phospholipids, and steroids

33 Fats (aka triglycerides) Fats are constructed from two types of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty acids Glycerol is a three-carbon alcohol with a hydroxyl group attached to each carbon A fatty acid consists of a carboxyl group attached to a long carbon skeleton Fatty acids are “tails”; glycerol is the backbone Lightweight energy storage

34 Fatty acid (palmitic acid) Fatty acid contains a hydrocarbon “tail” and a carboxylic acid “head” Dehydration reaction links a fatty acid and glycerol The head attaches to glycerol” ester bond Glycerol

35 Fat molecule (triglyceride or triacylglycerol) Ester bond

36 Fats separate from water because water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and exclude the fats-the tails cannot interact with water so they try to associate with each other Hydrophobic interactions In a fat, three fatty acids are joined to glycerol by an ester linkage, creating a triacylglycerol, or triglyceride

37 Fatty acids vary in length (number of carbons) and in the number and locations of double bonds Saturated fatty acids have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible and no double bonds Unsaturated fatty acids have one or more double bonds

38 Saturated fat Structural formula of a saturated fat molecule Stearic acid, a saturated fatty acid

39 Unsaturated fat Structural formula of an unsaturated fat molecule Oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid cis double bond causes bending

40 Fats made from saturated fatty acids are called saturated fats, and are solid at room temperature Most animal fats are saturated Fats made from unsaturated fatty acids are called unsaturated fats or oils, and are liquid at room temperature Plant fats and fish fats are usually unsaturated

41 The major function of fats is energy storage- fatty acids can be broken down to release energy Humans and other mammals store their lipids in adipose cells; plants tend to store lipids in seeds Adipose tissue also cushions vital organs and insulates the body

42 Phospholipids In a phospholipid, two fatty acids and a phosphate group are attached to glycerol The two fatty acid tails are hydrophobic, but the phosphate group and its attachments form a hydrophilic head Phospholipids have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic characteristics: amphipathic.

43 (b) Space-filling model (a)(c) Structural formula Phospholipid symbol Fatty acids Hydrophilic head Hydrophobic tails Choline Phosphate Glycerol Hydrophobic tails Hydrophilic head Other molecules can be attached to the phosphate to increase polarity

44 In an aqueous environment, phospholipids will arrange with the heads close to water

45 Steroids Steroids are lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings Cholesterol, an important steroid, is a component in animal cell membranes Although cholesterol is essential in animals, high levels in the blood may contribute to cardiovascular disease


47 Note card question: 1)Explain the hydrophobic interactions in this diagram 2)Where are the hydrogen bonds in this diagram?

Download ppt "Chapter 5 Large Molecules are the Hallmark of Life."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google