Presentation on theme: "Review Questions 1. How are polymers formed (what type of reaction)? 2. What occurs in this reaction? 3. How are polymers broken down (what type of reaction)?"— Presentation transcript:
Review Questions 1. How are polymers formed (what type of reaction)? 2. What occurs in this reaction? 3. How are polymers broken down (what type of reaction)? 4. What occurs during the break down reaction? 1 & 2 Condensation reaction – two monomers are covalently bonded to each other with a loss of water. In this reaction each monomer contributes part of the water molecule that is formed. 3 & 4 Hydrolysis reaction – the bond between monomers is broken by the addition of water. In this reaction each monomer takes part of the water molecule that is added.
Fig. 5-2 Short polymer HO 123H H Unlinked monomer Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond HO H2OH2O H 1 2 3 4 Longer polymer (a) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a polymer HO 1 2 3 4 H H2OH2O Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond HO H H 1 2 3 (b) Hydrolysis of a polymer
Fig. 5-5 (b) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of sucrose GlucoseFructose Sucrose MaltoseGlucose (a) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of maltose 1–4 glycosidic linkage 1–2 glycosidic linkage
Fig. 5-10 The structure of the chitin monomer. (a) (b) (c) Chitin forms the exoskeleton of arthropods. Chitin is used to make a strong and flexible surgical thread.
Carbohydrate questions… Is glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) a monomer or a polymer? – monomer What is a glycosidic linkage? – Covalent bond formed between 2 monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction. There are two categories of polysaccharides – name them and give examples – Storage – starch and glycogen – Structure – cellulose and chitin Where is chitin found? – The exoskeleton of insects
Fig. 5-12 Structural formula of a saturated fat molecule Stearic acid, a saturated fatty acid (a) Saturated fat Structural formula of an unsaturated fat molecule Oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid (b) Unsaturated fat cis double bond causes bending
Lipid questions… What characteristic do all lipids share? – Nonpolar/hydrophobic If a fat is composed of 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol, how many water molecules will be removed to form it? What is this process? – 3, dehydration synthesis What is the difference between saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids? – Saturated = all single carbon to carbon bonds – Unsaturated = 1 or more double carbon to carbon bonds What are the 4 important functions of lipids? – Energy storage, structure, chemical messengers, protection