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200 300 400 500 100 200 300 400 500 100 200 300 400 500 100 200 300 400 500 100 200 300 400 500 100 Lipids & Functions Tri- glycerides Saturated & UnSat. FA Rancidity Hydrog- enation
What 3 main components make up a lipid?
Carbon, Hydrogen & Oxygen
Essential fatty acids are more likely to be found in what kind of fats?
What are the 2 basic parts of a fat?
Glycerol molecule and Fatty Acid
What percentage does fat contribute to our daily caloric intake?
What are three functions of Fats in food?
Mouthfeel Carrier of aroma & flavor Shortening & Tenderizing Emulsifiers High Temperature Medium (for frying)
Name two ways to prevent rancidity.
1.Proper storage & package 2. Limiting repeated exposure to high temperatures 3. Addition of anti-oxidants 4. Hydrogenation
What is proper storage for a fat?
Keeping product away from light, oxygen and high temperatures
What’s the difference between oxidative rancidity and hydrolytic rancidity?
Oxidative gives “off flavors” Hydrolytic releases “off odors”
What kind of fats are more likely to become rancid?
Unsaturated, because their carbon molecules are not saturated with Hydrogen molecules.
Name one product that can become rancid.
Potato chips, Vegetable oils, butter
What are the names of the 2 unsaturated fatty acids
MUFA and PUFA Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated
What kind of bonds do unsaturated fats contain?
What determines the difference between a saturated and an unsaturated fat?
The links (bonds) between the carbon molecules
What are the carbon molecules in a saturated fat saturated with?
What kind of melting point does a linear chain have?
Higher melting points
Phosphorus containing acid attached to a glycerol that is soluble in water is…
What is a phospholipid?
Cholesterol, Vitamin D, and steroid hormones are complicated molecules of what?
What kind of bond holds fatty acids to glycerols?
Glycerol has three carbon molecules containing what groups?
3 Hydroxyl groups
Long carbon chains of a Fatty Acid has what two groups attached?
Carboxyl group and a methyl group
Why do you add Hydrogen atoms to an unsaturated lipid?
To increase its saturation level, to make it more stable, to prevent rancidity
Why does the food industry use partial hydrogenation?
To harden liquid oils into semi- solid fats, it makes them more manageable
Hydrogen atoms are forced into what?
Unsaturated Double Bonds
What do Trans Fats do?
Less prone to oxidizing, more manageable when cooking, raises the fat’s melting point (b/c chains are straightened and can be stacked
What is used to achieve the desired solid:liquid ratio and melting properties of lipids in the food industry?
Blending of oils with different properties
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