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Computer Organization Computer Organization & Assembly Language: Module 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Computer Organization Computer Organization & Assembly Language: Module 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Computer Organization Computer Organization & Assembly Language: Module 2

2 Computer Organization This module surveys the physical resources of a computer system.  Basic components  CPU  Memory  Bus  I/O devices  CPU structure  Registers  Processing units  Instruction cycle

3 CPU and the Memory u The Central Processing Unit (CPU)  responsible for instruction execution  determines how the memory is to be modified  contains a few data container called registers u The Main Memory  large collection of data containers  each is labeled with a positive integer called its address u For each instruction, the CPU fetches input data from registers or memory, then writes output to a register or memory location

4 Instruction Types u Arithmetic and logical instructions apply a function to input data to produce output  Addition, logical AND, negation u Control instructions test or compare values of variables and make decisions about what instruction is going to be executed next  The only output is a possible change in the register that keeps track of the address of the next instruction  This special register is often called the program counter (PC)

5 Fetch-Decode-Execute Cycle u The CPU is endlessly looping through these steps  Actual steps will vary from processor to processor u MIPS R2000 steps 1. instruction fetch & PC update 2. instruction decode & operand load 3. operation execution (control instructions update PC) 4. memory access 5. register update

6 Basic Architecture u Processor (CPU) u Main Memory  volatile u I/O devices  secondary memory  communications  terminals u System interconnection  a bus is used to exchange data and control information CPUMemory System Bus Disk Controller Network Controller Serial Device Controller

7 Interconnection: the bus u Conceptually, a collection of parallel wires, each of which is dedicated to carrying one of  data  address  control (of access to the bus) u Only one component can “write” to a particular wire of the bus at a time data address control

8 Device Controllers u Devices are not connected directly to the system bus u Each device has a device controller between it and the system bus u One controller may have multiple devices u For example: SCSI devices, IDE devices, USB devices CPUMemory System Bus Disk Controller Network Controller Serial Device Controller

9 I/O Devices u Each device has a buffer which mediates data transfer. u Transfer between memory and devices is limited by the size and speed of the data bus. u For example, though a disk reads data to its buffer one block at a time, transfer to memory is one word at a time. CPUMemory System Bus Device Controller buffer

10 Memory u Can be viewed as a linear array of data values  Indexed by non-negative integers: addresses  Memory is usually byte addressable  each byte has its own unique address  The word-size (width of the data bus) of a system is often more than 1 byte u In the MIPS architecture, the word- size is 4 bytes 2 31 –1 0

11 Central Processing Unit u Arithmetic logic unit (ALU)  performs arithmetic and logic operations u Control unit  reads and decodes instructions  initiates execution of instruction by proper component u Registers  some have special purpose CPU ALUControl PC IR PSW AR CP DP SP CL DL v0 a0s0s1s2s3

12 CPU Design u CPU design defines what the computer’s instruction do and how they are specified (the instruction set) u The instruction set determine the computer’s capabilities.  All computers should be able to implement any logical function on a finite number of bits.  Such instruction sets are said to be complete  Not all complete designs are equal!  Execution time may vary… u A computer’s machine language is determined by its manufacturer u The assembly language is also formally defined by the manufacturer

13 0$zero 1$at 2$v0 3$v1 4$a0 … 7$a3 8$t0 … 15$t7 16$s0 23…$s7 24$t8 25$t9 26$k0 27$k1 28$gp 29$sp 30$fp 31$ra MIPS ALU Registers

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