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Understanding types of sentences and sentence structures.

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Presentation on theme: "Understanding types of sentences and sentence structures."— Presentation transcript:

1 Understanding types of sentences and sentence structures

2 There are four types of sentences The most common type of sentence is the DECLARATIVE sentence. A declarative sentence “declares” or states something. To declare : أعلن 聲明 declarar

3 Examples: I am hungry. Class starts at 6:00 pm. Summer ends next month. The days are getting shorter.

4 Imperative Sentences Imperative sentences give a command – tell someone to do something. Often times, imperative sentences do not have a stated subject, but the subject is implied to be “you”. Imperative : imperativo 迫切 إلزامي

5 Examples of Imperative Sentences Close the door. Get ready for school. Pass me the pepper. Each of these examples have “you” for the subject.

6 Analyzing the imperative sentence: What is the subject and the verb of the following sentence? “Don’t forget to take out the garbage tonight.” ---Remember negatives are adverbs. We are left with “do” and “forget” as the verbs. ---The subject is the implied “you”....... so

7 Finishing up.. (You) don’t forget to take out the garbage.

8 Interrogatory Sentences Interrogatory sentences is another way of saying a sentence that asks a question. They will always be followed by a question mark: Examples: Did you do the homework? Are you going to make dinner tonight? Did you enjoy the movie?

9 Finding the subject and verb To find the subject and verb of a question, restate the sentence as a declarative sentence: Did you do the homework? = You did do the homework. Are you going to make dinner tonight? = You are going to made dinner tonight. Did you enjoy the movie? = You did enjoy the movie.

10 Exclamatory Sentences An exclamatory sentence adds emphasis or emotion to either a declaratory or imperative sentence. It will always be followed by an exclamation point (!) Examples: Don’t go in the kitchen! I just washed the floor. Watch out! I got an A on my test!

11 Sentence Structure Sentence structure is divided into four types: Simple sentences Compound sentences Complex Sentences Compound/Complex Sentences

12 What is a sentence? A sentence will always: 1)Start with a capital letter 2)Have a subject 3)Have a verb 4)Have a complete idea 5)End with a period (.), a question mark (?), or an exclamation point (!)

13 Which of these is not a sentence? We are going to get rain on Saturday. Stop! Because traffic was heavy. Why were you so late?

14 The answer is... “Because traffic was so heavy.” It starts with a capital letter It has a subject (traffic) It has a verb (was) It ends in a period BUT - - - it doesn’t have a complete thought or idea. Because traffic was so heavy... What? I was late? I drove a different way? I decided not to go?

15 Dependent and Independent Clauses An INDEPENDENT clause is another word for a complete sentence. It is independent, or free, of anything else. It has a completed idea. Clause: جملة Cláusula 條款

16 Dependent Clauses A DEPENDENT clause do not complete an idea. You can recognize it because it starts with a dependent word. Examples of Dependent words: Because While During Although Since

17 Notice how there is no complete idea or thought: Because I had already taken that class. Since it was only four o’clock. While the baby was sleeping. If I only had more money.

18 Fragments Dependent clauses are considered to be fragments. A fragment is something that is not complete. Do you understand the difference between dependent and independent clauses?

19 Simple sentences A simple sentence is a single independent clause. It has one idea. Examples: 1)Mario and Sam drove to New York City. 2)I wish it would rain. 3)My garden needs to be watered. 4)Sarah studied and wrote her paper. 5)Mo and Sam sanded and painted the cabinets.

20 Compound Sentences Compound sentences are two (or more) independent clauses joined by a conjunction or semicolon. Example: Simple sentences: Mary cooked dinner. Mike did the dishes. Compound: Mary cooked dinner, and Mike did the dishes. OR Mary cooked dinner; Mike did the dishes.

21 Comma usage When you connect two independent clauses together with a conjunction, put a comma before the conjunction. It was raining, and I forgot to close the windows.

22 Your turn Let’s practice compound sentences.

23 Complex Sentences A COMPLEX sentence contains One Independent Clause, and At least one Dependent Clause EXAMPLES: If I had more money, I would take a vacation. Because I was running late, I skipped dinner.

24 Comma Usage NOTICE: When a sentence starts with a dependent clause, you use a comma to separate it from the independent clause. When a sentence starts with an independent clause, you DON’T use a comma to separate. Because it was raining, I arrived late for work. I arrived late for work because it was raining.

25 Your turn Let’s practice some complex sentences:

26 Compound/Complex Sentences These will contain at least: Two independent clauses At least one dependent clause Example: I drove to school because it was raining, and I couldn’t find a parking spot.

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