Presentation on theme: "Types of Research 1. Categorized by Practicality a. Basic research done to satisfy a need to know with no intention of resolving an immediate social."— Presentation transcript:
Types of Research 1. Categorized by Practicality a. Basic research done to satisfy a need to know with no intention of resolving an immediate social or personal problem. (natural sciences) b. Applied research done to find practical solutions to pressing problems. (business)
2. Differentiated by Methodology a. Qualitative research relies on narrative data (verbal descriptions and opinions) b. Quantitative research relies on numerical data (scores and measurements) c. Experimental research shows cause-effect relationships that enables us to predict and control events.
d. Non-experimental research used to depict people, events situations, conditions and relationships as they currently exist or once existed; evaluate products or processes; and develop innovations. 3. Defined by Questions Addressed a. Ethnographic research documents and explains social behavior within groups
explores behavior holistically within a social setting of customs, values, and styles of communications data sources are people, objects, environments, and communication patterns inherent in the context under study findings are usually presented in narrative form, sometimes enhanced by graphic illustrations non-experimental, largely qualitative, and is heavily dependent on investigator perception and skill in making observations and interpretations.
b. Historical research explores conditions, situations, events or people of the past non-experimental and may be qualitative, quantitative, or a combination of the two typically guided by research questions and uses as sources of data original documents, newspaper accounts, photographs and drawings, historical records, locales, objects, and people who have some knowledge of the time and place under investigation
findings are normally presented in narrative form illuminated by numerical, categorical, and graphic illustrations. c. Descriptive research depicts people, situations, events, and conditions as they currently exist non-experimental and can be either qualitative, quantitative, or a combination of the two research questions and hypotheses are frequently used
major sources from which information is obtained are physical settings, records, documents, objects, materials, and people directly involved additional information may be obtained from newspaper accounts, photographs, and people who possess knowledge of the situation but were not directly involved findings are presented in narrative form enhanced by numerical, categorical, and graphic illustrations
d. Correlational research explores the degree of correlation between two or more variables data are obtained from the individuals serving as participants in the study quantitative and non-experimental may strongly suggest cause-effect relationships correlations give us the valuable ability to predict one of the variables from the other
e. Action research done to improve conditions, within a particular setting, without concern to apply the findings elsewhere identifies the specific problems, formulates possible solutions, applies those solutions, and evaluates the results f. Evaluation research done to make judgments about the quality of particular programs, procedures, materials, and the like
data collected are compared against a set of criteria used to indicate quality g. Causal-comparative research explores the influence of a preexisting condition on a variable can suggest causality more persuasively than correlational research non-experimental and quantitative and uses data obtained from the people involved
h. Experimental research uses two groups, control and experimental quantitative and focuses on independent and dependent variables, called cause and effect, respectively indicates cause-effect relationships more convincingly than any other type of research