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Chapter 15 Ethnographic Designs

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1 Chapter 15 Ethnographic Designs
Power Point Slides by Ronald J. Shope in collaboration with John W. Creswell

2 Educational Research 2e: Creswell
Key Ideas Define ethnographic research When to conduct an ethnography Development of ethnographic research Types of Ethnographic Designs Key characteristics of ethnographic research Steps in conducting an ethnography Evaluating an ethnography Educational Research 2e: Creswell

3 What is ethnographic research?
Ethnographic designs are qualitative research procedures for describing, analyzing, and interpreting a culture-sharing group’s shared patterns of behavior, beliefs, and language that develop over time. Educational Research 2e: Creswell

4 When do you conduct an ethnography?
Study of a group helps you understand a larger issue Have a culture-sharing group to study Want a day-to-day picture Long-term access to culture-sharing group Educational Research 2e: Creswell

5 How did ethnographic research develop?
Ethnography has been shaped by cultural anthropology with an emphasis on writing about culture 1928 Mead study of childbearing, adolescence, and influence of culture on personality in Samoa 1920’s ’s Single case emphasis at University of Chicago Educational Research 2e: Creswell

6 How did ethnographic research develop?
1980’s Educational Ethnographies 1997 publication of Writing Culture that highlighted two major issues crisis of representation: how ethnographers interpret the groups they are studying crisis of “legitimacy”: standards do not come from “normal science.” Studies must be evaluated by standards within the participants’ historical, cultural, influences and interactive forces of race, gender and class Educational Research 2e: Creswell

7 Common types of Ethnographies: Realist ethnography
Narrates study in the third person voice reporting what is observed Researcher reports objective data free from personal bias, political goals or judgment Researcher produces the participants’ views through closely edited quotes and has final word on how the culture is to be interpreted and presented. Educational Research 2e: Creswell

8 Common types of Ethnographies: Case study
Definition: an in-depth exploration of a bounded system (time, place, physical boundaries) Subject for case studies individual or several individuals series of steps that form a sequence of activities Researcher develops understanding of the case by collecting multiple forms of data Researcher locates the “case” or “cases” within their larger context Educational Research 2e: Creswell

9 Types of qualitative case studies
Intrinsic Case Study Unusual Case Study an intrinsic, unusual case. Instrumental Case Study Issue Case Study a case that provides insight into an issue or theme Multiple Instrumental Case Study (also called a Collective Case Study) Study several cases that provide insight into an issue (or theme) Educational Research 2e: Creswell

10 Common types of Ethnographies: Critical Ethnography
Used by politically minded people Advocate for the emancipation of marginalized groups Seek to change society Identify and celebrate research bias: all research is value laden Challenge status-quo and ask “Why is it so?” Create literal dialogue with participants Educational Research 2e: Creswell

11 Critical Ethnography: Procedural Characteristics
Social issues include: power, empowerment, inequity, dominance, repression, hegemony, victimization Collaborate actively with participants and negotiate final report Self-conscious about their own interpretation Reflexive and self-ware of their role Non-neutral Uses contradictions, imponderable, and tension (Denzin 1997) Educational Research 2e: Creswell

12 Key characteristics of an ethnographic design
Cultural themes from cultural anthropology A culture-sharing group Examination of shared patterns of behavior, belief, and language Data collection through fieldwork Description, themes, interpretation Group context or setting Researcher reflexivity Educational Research 2e: Creswell

13 Key characteristics: Cultural themes
Cultural Theme: general position, declared or implied, that is openly approved or promoted in a society or group Drawn from cultural anthropology or literature Seen in purpose statement or research questions as a Central Phenomenon Examples: Persistence Identity development Social skills Enculturation Educational Research 2e: Creswell

14 Key characteristics: Culture-sharing group
Individuals who have shared Behaviors Beliefs Language Vary in size Interacts on regular basis Interacted over a period of time Representative of a larger group Educational Research 2e: Creswell

15 Key characteristics: Discerning shared patterns
A shared pattern is a common social interaction that stabilizes as tacit rules and expectations of the group Behavior: action taken by an individual in a cultural setting Belief: how an individual thinks or perceives things in a cultural setting Language: how an individual talks to others in a cultural setting Types of patterns Ideal: What should have occurred Actual: What did occur Projective: What might have occurred Educational Research 2e: Creswell

16 Key characteristics: Doing fieldwork
Fieldwork researcher gathers data in the setting where the participants are located and where their shared patterns can be studied Types of data Emic data (data supplied by the participants) Etic data (ethnographer’s interpretation of participant’s perspectives) Negotiation data (information participants and researcher agree to use in a study) Forms of data: Observations, Interviews, Documents Educational Research 2e: Creswell

17 Key characteristics: Description, Themes, and Interpretations
Description: detailed rendering of individuals and scenes in order to depict what is going on in the culture-sharing group (detailed, thick, rich) Themes: how things work and naming the essential features in themes in the cultural setting (shared patterns of behavior, thinking, talking) Interpretation: inferences and conclusions about what was learned Relates descriptions and themes back to what was learned Educational Research 2e: Creswell

18 Key characteristics of ethnographic designs: Context or setting
Setting, situation, or environment that surrounds the cultural group being studied History, religion, politics, economy, the environment, physical location Educational Research 2e: Creswell

19 Key characteristics of ethnographic designs: Reflexivity
Researcher openly discusses respect for participants and sites Talk about themselves Share their experiences Identify how their interpretations shape their discussions about sites and groups Educational Research 2e: Creswell

20 Steps in Conducting Ethnographic Research
Identify intent and type of design and relate intent to your research problem Discuss approval and access considerations Collect appropriate data emphasizing time in field, multiple sources, collaboration Analyze and interpret data within a design Write report consistent with your design Educational Research 2e: Creswell

21 How do you evaluate an ethnography?
Group or case clearly identified? Patterns identified? Detail provided? Context specified? Author reflexive? Broader interpretation given? Conveys how the culture works? Accuracy checked? Educational Research 2e: Creswell

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