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Chapter 21 Electricity
Opposite charges attract, like repel Charged objects can cause electrons to rearrange their positions on a neutral object
Three methods of charging objects with static electricity 1. Friction- movement of electrons caused by rubbing
2.Conduction: flow of electrons by direct contact Conductor: material that allows electrons to move easily through it (metals)
Insulator: material that doesn’t allow electrons to move through it easily (plastic, rubber, glass, wood, and air)
3. Induction- rearrangement of electric charges
Static Electricity: accumulation of electric charges on an object and is stationary or not moving Loosely held electrons are transferred from one object to another
Electric Discharge-The loss of static electricity as electrons move off an object and usually into the air Lightning Shocking someone after rubbing your feet as you walk on carpet in the winter
Section 2 Lightning: very large discharge of static electricity Billions and billions of electrons
Circuit: closed path through which electrons can flow Current: flow of electrons through a wire or conductor Ampere
Series circuit: current has only one path it can travel When any part of a series circuit is disconnected, no current can flow through the circuit (Christmas lights)
Parallel Circuit: contain separate branches for current to move through When one branch is open, the current continues to flow through the other branches
Parallel Circuit: contain separate branches for current to move through
Electroscope: device that detects the presence of an electric charge Two thin metal leaves attached to a metal rod with a knob at the top
The two leaves move away from each other when they become charged
Lightning Rod: device that is grounded to the Earth so that it can carry lightning harmlessly to the ground
Section 3 Electrons flow from places of higher potential energy to those with lower until equal
Potential difference: difference in potential between two different places Volts (v)
Batteries Dry Cell: “electron pump” because it has a potential difference between the positive and negative terminals Continues as long as the chemical reaction occurs
Batteries Wet Cell: two connected plates made of different metals in an electrolyte solution Ex. Car battery
Resistance: tendency for a material to oppose the flow of electrons Ohms ( ) Material, size & length, temperature all affect resistance
Ohm’s Law: current in a metal conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across its ends & inversely proportional to the resistance
V (volts) = I (amperes) x R (ohms) Practice Problems 1 & 2 (pg. 558)
Either a fuse or a circuit breaker is wired between every parallel circuit and the main switch box Fuse – meltsBreaker - bends
Section 5 Electrical Power: rate at which electrical energy is converted to another form of energy (W) watts
Power = current x voltage P = I x V Practice Problems 1 & 2 (pg. 566)
Kilowatt- hour: 1000 watts of power used for one hour
Energy = power x time E = P x t Practice Problems 1 & 2 (pg. 568)
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