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Response to Intervention in General, Remedial, and Special Education

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1 Response to Intervention in General, Remedial, and Special Education
Daniel J. Reschly Kansas Association of School Psychologists Hutcheson, KS October 6, 2006 Reschly RTI

2 What To Do With Egbert?? 1st Grade, falling behind in reading
Slow progress compared to peers Likely to miss benchmarks related to passing 3rd Grade reading test Distractible, inattentive, disruptive Sound Familiar WHAT HAPPENS NEXT? Driven by Federal Legislation Consider NCLB and IDEIA Reschly RTI

3 Egbert in the Traditional System
Refer Egbert Preferral “intervention” (check a box) Comprehensive Evaluation-Battery of Tests, “common battery”? Assessment largely outside of the natural context Dubious generalizations from test behavior to classroom Eligibility assessment unrelated to intervention Team decision-making SLD diagnoses often inaccurate Reschly RTI

4 Can you blame somebody else?
PROBLEM SOLVING CHART Yes Does the damn thing work? No Don’t mess with it! You Idiot! Yes Did you mess with it? No No Hide it! Does anyone else know? Yes Will you catch hell? No Yes You poor slob! Ignore it Can you blame somebody else? No Yes NO PROBLEM Reschly RTI

5 What Is Response to Intervention (RTI)?
High quality instruction and behavior interventions Matched to student need, With frequent progress monitoring and formative evaluation, Applied to individual educational decisions Implementation requires: Allocating (aligning) resources to deliver effective interventions that produce improved child outcomes Reschly RTI

6 Order at: RESPONSE TO Intervention
POLICY CONSIDERATIONS AND IMPLEMENTATION Order at: Cost: $15 with discounts for large orders Reschly RTI

7 Why RTI? Dissatisfaction with ach. results
Expensive programs with undocumented benefits, General Ed. Title I and Sp Ed Poor overall outcomes re: benchmark tests, graduate rates, early adult outcomes Overrepresentation in sp ed Disjointed programs across general, remedial and special ed.-compromised outcomes and wasted resources Reschly RTI

8 NAEP 4th Grade Reading by Race, Ethnicity in 2003
Reschly RTI Source: USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)

9 U.S. Ranks 14th in High School Graduation Rates (2001)
Reschly RTI Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators 2003 Edition, data available at

10 Reschly RTI

11 Special Education Placement Effects: High Incidence Disabilities
Treatment/Intervention aEffect Size EMR/Special Classes (IQ 60-75) Special Classes (IQ 75-90) Resource for SLD and E/BD Traditional Placement Practices Have Weak Relationships to Outcomes Special Education as a Solution? Note: Effect size is expressed in SD units, analogous to a z-score Reschly RTI

12 Old Assumptions re: High Incidence Disabilities (SLD, MMR, E/BD)
Disabilities Inherent in Individual?-BUT, Context and prevention are crucial Identify and Treat Underlying Causes-BUT, Failure of process training Prescribe Methods that Capitalize on Strengths and Avoid Weaknesses-BUT, Failure of Aptitude by Treatment Interaction in Research and Practice Reschly RTI

13 Old Assumptions, cont. Unique Treatment Methods and Teacher Training by Disability But, Same methods work for virtually all High Incidence I SWD, LD, ED, EMR IQ Essential to Accurate Classification-BUT Same kids found with problem solving processes and measures Identifying Disability and Sp Ed Placement Solves Problem Dubious Effects of Special Education Reschly RTI

14 Meaningfulness of the Special Education Categories
Category Prevalence Range Low v. High MR: 0.4% (NJ) to 3.0% (WV) Xs ED: 0.1% (AR) to 2.0% (MN) 20Xs LD: 2.7% (KY) to 9.3% (RI) Xs Sp/L: 0.8% (HI) to 3.8% (WV) Xs OHI: 0.1% (MS) to 2.1% (RI) 21Xs All: 9.7% (CO) to 17.9% (RI) Xs What Accounts for the Differences??; Also differences between LEAs within states , age 6-17, school enrollment, Table AA-13, Reschly RTI

15 Progression of Research, Policy, and Legal Requirements
Scientific research with practice demonstrations leading to Multiple policy analyses in presented in prestigious reports leading to Multiple layers of Federal legal requirements leading to Changes in state rules leading to Scaling up efforts in states Reschly RTI

16 Foundations for Policy Changes: What Does Work? ABA, DI, CBM
Treatment Effect Size Applied Behavior Analysis CBM+Graphing+Formative Evaluation + reinforcement Explicit Instruction and Problem Solving to 1.50 Comprehension Strategies Kavale (2005), Learning Disabilities, 13, Reschly RTI

17 Policy and Legal Influences
NICHD LD Studies Snow, C. E., Burns, M. S. & Griffin, P. (Eds.) (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington DC: National Academy Press. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council Panel Report LD Summit Researchers Recommendations (Bradley et al., 2002) Presidents Commission on Excellence in Special Education (2002) report, Reschly RTI

18 Disproportionality Legal Requirements
§ Overidentification and disproportionality States must collect data on to determine if significant disproportionality by race exists re: Identification of students with disabilities by category Placement options used, i.e., LRE profile Incidence and kind of disciplinary actions including suspensions and expulsions Reschly RTI

19 Disproportionality Legal Requirements
§ Overidentification and disproportionality continued If significant disproportionality exists, the state must Review and, if appropriate, revise the policies, procedures, and practices used in identification or placement Allocate 15% of IDEA funds to EIS, especially focusing on children significantly overidentified Require the LEA to publicly report on the revision of policies, practices, and procedures described under paragraph (b)(1) of this section. Reschly RTI

20 NRC Overrepresentation Panel: Digression: Disproportionality
What were the real issues? Was IQ the issue? Did an IQ test ban resolve disproportionality or improve outcomes Reschly (1980) Right problem-Wrong Solution Reschly RTI

21 Centrality of Outcomes in Disproportionality
Judge Peckham commenting on the 1979 Trial Opinion ban on IQ tests, “… clearly limited to the use of IQ tests in the assessment and placement of African-American students in dead end programs such as MMR.” (Crawford and Larry P., 1992, p. 15). Reschly RTI

22 Centrality of Outcomes in Disproportionality, cont.
“ Despite the Defendants’ attempts to characterize the court’s 1979 order as a referendum on the discriminatory nature of IQ testing, this court’s review of the decision reveals that the decision was largely concerned with the harm to African-American children resulting from improper placement in dead-end educational programs.” (Crawford and Larry P., 1992, p.23).” Reschly RTI

23 Overrepresentation Panel NRC Recommendations
Universal early screening for academic and behavioral problems (Ktg-Grade2) Early identification-interventions Multi-tiered academic and behavioral interventions RtI for eligibility-eliminate IQ for LD Eligibility: non-categorical for high incidence disabilities OR change current classification criteria for LD Reschly RTI

24 Overall Conclusion “ There is substantial evidence with regard to both behavior and achievement that early identification and intervention is more effective than later identification and intervention.” Executive Summary, p. 5 Efficacy of special education with reading problems after grade 3? Reschly RTI

25 Overrepresentation Panel NRC Recommendations cont.
…. no IQ test would be required, and the results of an IQ test would not be a primary criterion on which eligibility rests. Because of the irreducible importance of context in the recognition and nurturance of achievement, the committee regards the effort to assess students’ decontextualized potential or ability as inappropriate and scientifically invalid. (p. 313). Reschly RTI

26 Commonalties in Policy Recommendations
Accountability-Improved results for all students and better results are possible!! (Gloeckler) Integration of general, remedial, and sp ed through multiple tiers of intervention Scientifically-based interventions with problem solving Progress monitoring with formative evaluation Decisions at all levels driven by child response to intervention Abandon IQ-Achievement discrepancy in LD Identification Reschly RTI

27 Why Abandon IQ-Achievement Discrepancy??
Unreliable (especially stability of discrepancy scores) Invalid (IQ discrepant poor readers do NOT respond better than IQ non-discrepant poor readers to reading instruction) Causes Harm (Wait to Fail) Reschly RTI

28 Progression of Federal General and Special Education Legislation
s To s Assistance Results [__________________________________________] ESEA EHA NCLB/ Rdg 1st IDEA 2004 Procedures Outcomes Number Served Improvement Reschly RTI

29 Major Legal Themes (NCLB, IDEA)
Scientifically-based instruction More frequent assessment, progress monitoring, formative evaluation Well integrated multiple tiers of Intervention Decisions driven by child responses to instruction-intervention in general, remedial, and special education Alignment of resources to enhance positive outcomes Reschly RTI

30 Changes in Legal Requirements IDEA (2004)
‘‘(A) IN GENERAL.—Notwithstanding section 607(b), when determining whether a child has a specific learning disability as defined in section 602, a local educational agency shall not be required to take into consideration whether a child has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability in oral expression, listening comprehension, written expression, basic reading skill, reading comprehension, mathematical calculation, or mathematical reasoning. Reschly RTI

31 Response to Intervention (IDEA, 2004)
‘‘(B) ADDITIONAL AUTHORITY.—In deter- mining whether a child has a specific learning disability, a local educational agency may use a process that determines if the child responds to scientific, research-based intervention as a part of the evaluation procedures described in paragraphs (2) and (3). Does response to intervention appear in the law? Reschly RTI

32 Final Regulation NEW AND SIGNIFICANT: (b must consider, as part of the evaluation described data that demonstrates that— (1) Prior to, or as a part of the referral process, the child was provided appropriate high-quality, research-based instruction in regular education settings, consistent with section 1111(b)(8)(D) and (E) of the ESEA, including that the instruction was delivered by qualified personnel; and (2) Data-based documentation of repeated assessments of achievement at reasonable intervals, reflecting formal assessment of student progress during instruction, was provided to the child's parents. Reschly RTI

33 Prevention-Early Intervention
LEA can use 15% of federal IDEA funds to support prevention and early identification-treatment Purpose: minimize over-identification and unnecessary sp ed referrals Provide academic and behavioral supports; and professional development re: early literacy and behavior MUST use the 15% if LEA has “significant disproportionality Reschly RTI

34 Key Mechanism: Formative Evaluation
Multi-Tiered Academic Interventions of Increasing Intensity and Measurement Precision Academics (Empirically validated instruction) Tier I: General Education: All students Tier II: Standard Protocol and Problem Solving: (about 10 to 20 weeks) Small group and individualized interventions with eligibility determination if response is insufficient Tier III: More Intensive, Sustained Instruction Special education or Other Options (One year or more): More intense services brought to the students Key Mechanism: Formative Evaluation Reschly RTI

35 Key Mechanism: Formative Evaluation
Multi-Tiered Behavior Interventions of Increasing Intensity and Measurement Precision Behavior-Empirically validated Level I: General Education : School wide positive discipline and effective classroom organization and management Level II: Standard Protocol Treatments and Problem Solving: (10 to 20 weeks) Targeted individual interventions in general education and eligibility determination if necessary. Level III: More Intensive, Sustained Instruction Special education or Other Options (One year or more): More intense services brought to the students Key Mechanism: Formative Evaluation Reschly RTI

36 Formative Evaluation Frequent assessment of progress
Referenced to goals based on benchmarks toward passing state tests Decision rules regarding modification of goals or instructional programs All decisions about student needs and instructional intensity are based on child RTI Reschly RTI

37 Characteristics of Effective Formative Evaluation Measures
Direct measures of skills Natural settings Efficient re: costs and time required Sensitive to small increments of growth in relevant skills Results can be graphed in relation to goals Reliable in terms of stability Valid re: relationship to broad indicators of competence Example: CBM oral reading fluency and reading comprehension Reschly RTI

38 Tier I: General Education, Universal Stage, Primary Prevention
Academics and Behavior Scientifically-based Explicit instruction Systematic intervention Inter-related, reciprocal relationships, mutually supported Discuss separately here, but acknowledge the essential inter-relationship of academics and behavior Reschly RTI

39 Tier I: Academic Interventions
Scientifically-based instruction in reading Curricula-content-Big ideas, e.g., reading Phonemic Awareness Alphabetic principles Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension Study of IHEs pre-service preparation in rdg 14 of 72 taught all 5 components and many taught none, see Reschly RTI

40 IHEs and SBRR Five Components
Source Sample N=72 5 Components Phonemic Alphabetic Fluency Vocabulary Compre-hension 43% N=31 13% 15% 7% 11% 11% N=11 N=8 N=8 N=9 N=5 Components

41 Tier I: Academic Interventions
Teaching Methodology Explicit Instruction Modeling, guided practice, practice to automaticity, integration with other skills I do it; We do it; You do it with feedback, You do it independently, You do it automatically Frequent responding with feedback Brisk pace Systematic Instruction Sequential, Hierarchical Include all reading components each day Reschly RTI

42 Tier I: Assessment: Academics
Routine Assessment of Progress Screen all students, begin in kindergarten; 3 times per year with appropriate early literacy measures More intense instruction and monitoring within classroom for students below trajectories toward passing state benchmark tests Grouping, instructional materials, time, paraprofessionals Increase assessment to 2 Xs per month Reschly RTI

43 Benchmark: Winter KTG 25 sounds correct/min.
KTG: Initial Sound Fluency Fall to January Yr. Benchmark: Winter KTG 25 sounds correct/min. New KTG Teacher and Traditional Instruction Reschly RTI

44 Benchmark: Winter KTG 25 sounds correct/min.
KTG: Initial Sound Fluency Fall to January Yr. Benchmark: Winter KTG 25 sounds correct/min. Experienced Teacher Direct Instruction Reschly RTI

45 Phoneme Seg. Fluency: Jan to May 05-06 Yr. Benchmark: 35 correct
New KTG Teacher and Traditional Instruction Reschly RTI

46 Benchmark: May 35 per minute
Phoneme Seg. Fluency: Jan to May Yr. Benchmark: May 35 per minute Experienced Teacher Direct Instruction Reschly RTI

47 Benchmark: 25 correct per minute
Nonsense Word Fluency: Jan to May Yr. Benchmark: 25 correct per minute New KTG Teacher and Traditional Instruction Reschly RTI

48 Benchmark: 25 correct per minute
Nonsense Word Fluency: Jan to May Yr. Benchmark: 25 correct per minute Experienced Teacher Direct Instruction Reschly RTI

49 Benchmark: Winter KTG 25 sounds correct/min.
KTG: Initial Sound Fluency Fall to January Yr. Benchmark: Winter KTG 25 sounds correct/min. Students needing greater Gen’l Ed monitoring and Interventions Reschly RTI

50 Benchmark: Winter First Grade
1st Gr. Nonsense Word Fluency Benchmark: Winter First Grade 50 Words Per Minute ?? Reschly RTI

51 Second Grade Oral Reading Fluency Benchmark: End of 1st=42 WCM
Winter=71 WCM End of 2nd=100 WCM ?? Reschly RTI

52 Behavioral Assessment and CBM Measures
Focused on determination of change Formative evaluation critical Tied to effective practices and better outcomes Applications in general, remedial, and special education Identification of disabilities-integrates identification with treatment Reschly RTI

53 Why Behavior Assessment (including CBM)
Determine current levels in academics and behavior; degree of need Monitor progress, assess change Foundation for formative evaluation-improving interventions Determine success of interventions Decisions based in child response to interventions Reschly RTI

54 Foundations of CBM Deno & Mirkin (1977) Breakthrough
Brief samples of behavior Use of oral reading fluency samples Production per unit of time Fluency and accuracy combined Words read correct per minute Math-digits correct Spelling-letters correct Reschly RTI

55 Prior Barriers to CBM Use
Cumbersome for practitioners, developing own passages Conceptual issues: Passages from curriculum or generic passages? Teachers’ concerns about comprehension: Word calling?? Inertia; satisfaction with current practices IDEA: assessment of change not required Reschly RTI

56 Combines fluency (speed) and accuracy
Reading CBM Combines fluency (speed) and accuracy Broad range of competencies including Letter naming (Ktg) Sound identification (Ktg) Nonsense words or real word identification (Ktg to first grade) Oral reading fluency (mid first to high school Comprehension (maze, other methods) Reschly RTI

57 Importance of Standardized CBM Procedures
Standardized meaning uniformity in administration, scoring, interpretation Prerequisite to use of data in Determining risk status within classroom or school Measuring change for individuals or groups Predicting later performance Reschly RTI

58 Oral Reading Fluency What is it? Why do it? Word Calling Myth
Reading aloud fluently and accurately from text. Why do it? Indicator of proficiency in reading that is sensitive to growth Highly correlated with performance on standardized tests and tests of comprehension Provides information that may be used to evaluate effects of instruction Word Calling Myth Reschly RTI

59 Administering Oral Reading Passages
Essential Items -One student copy -One administration copy -Timer or stopwatch (make sure to time exactly 1 min) -Administration script Reschly RTI

60 Instructions to Child When I say “please begin” start reading aloud at the top of this page. Read across the page. [Demonstrate by pointing] Try to read each word. If you come to a word you don’t know, I’ll tell it to you. If you get to the end of the page, start over. Be sure to do your best reading. Are there any questions? [Pause] Please begin. Reschly RTI

61 Examiner’s Administration Rules
After reading instructions to students, Start timer. If the student fails to say the first word of the passage after 3 sec., tell him/her the word and mark it incorrect. If the student stops or struggles with a word for 3 seconds, tell the student the word and mark it incorrect. If the student reaches the end of the page and does not continue, point to the first word and ask the student to start over. At the end of 1 minute, place a bracket after the last word and say, please stop. Reschly RTI

62 Scoring Rules Words must be pronounced correctly to be counted as correct (disregard if mispronunciations due to speech problems or dialect) Ignore inserted or repeated words Reschly RTI

63 ORF Passage: Making Friends (from Deno and Amy Reschly)
There once was a little girl named Ann who was very shy. She was too shy to make friends Ann lived in an apartment building with her mother 28 and brother. Ann liked to play at the playground near her apartment building One day Ann was playing on the swings when 50 Total words read = 49 Words read incorrectly = 3 Words read correctly = 46 Reschly RTI

64 What is recorded? Give 3 Passages Record the Median Score Example:
If a student’s scores on the 3 passages were: 24 words read correctly 38 words read correctly 35 words read correctly GO TO VIDEO Reschly RTI

65 Sample passage from DIBELS,
The Ant Hill Dad and I took a hike in the woods. We walked for a long time and stopped to take a rest. We sat down on a log and had a 30 drink of water. A big hill was nearby Dad said, "Look, there's an ant hill." I walked up to the hill and took a closer peek. At first it looked just like a dirt hill. Then I noticed a few ants running 72 around. I looked closer. I saw little ants carrying pieces of mushroom. The pieces were almost as big as the ants "What are they doing, Dad?" I asked "They're taking food inside the hill. They probably have 109 Reschly RTI

66 Sample passage from DIBELS,
The Snow Person This morning when I woke up it was freezing cold. I looked 12 out and the ground was covered with white. It had snowed 23 during the night. Mom said there would be no school because of 35 the snow. She said I could go outside and play in the snow. I had 50 to eat a hot breakfast first I dressed in my warm clothes. I wore mittens and a stocking 68 cap. Mom helped me with my rubber hoots. I was so bundled up 81 1 could hardly walk The grass was covered with soft snow and it was very quiet. 97 Then all my friends came out to play. It wasn't quiet for long! 110 My friends helped me make a snow person. We made snowballs 121 first. We rolled them up until they were big. Then we stacked 133 three big balls of snow on top of each other Reschly RTI

67 Resources for Assessment and Interventions
Good & Kaminski: DIBELS Gary Germann and Mark Shinn AIMSWEB ; James Wright Vaughn-Gross Reading Center Florida Reading Center-Torgesen/Wagner Reschly RTI

68 Math CBM Scoring rule: Count the number of correctly written digits in the problems 64 x 722 128 Answer= 128 448__ 46208 Reschly RTI

69 Math CBM Scoring rule: Count the number of correctly written digits in the problems 64 x 722 128 3 pts Answer=17 pts pts pts Reschly RTI

70 Math CBM Scoring rule: Count the number of correctly written digits in the problems 64 x 722 126 2 pts Answer=12 pts pts pts Reschly RTI

71 Tier I Assessment of Behavior
Focus on classroom and individuals Screen all children for behavior Skills, performance, emotional regulation Aggressive behaviors-identify and treat at young ages Social isolation Bullying Classroom related social skills (or academic enablers Reschly RTI

72 Tier I: Importance of Classroom Organization and Behavior Management
Kellam, Baltimore Schools Students randomly assigned to 1st grade teachers, then classroom was the unit of analysis Classrooms observed during first 9 wks., high rates of disruptive behavior and aggression, large differences across classrooms Classrooms randomly assigned to, Experimental condition: Good Behavior Game (Barrish, et al, 1969; Sulzer-Azaroff & Mayer, 1991) vs. Control condition of in-service on general curriculum issues Reschly RTI

73 Kellam Research: Classroom Organization and Management
Good Behavior Game (Barrish, et al., 1969) Group contingency Two groups formed into teams Define rules and positive behaviors Teams compete for positive consequences Team with highest rate of appropriate behaviors earn “rewards” Lining up first, Help teacher pick-up classroom, free time, etc. Reschly RTI

74 Kellam Research: Effects of Good Behavior Game Were Statistically Significant
Aggression and disruptive behavior continued in control classrooms Marked reduction in experimental condition Experimental classrooms had higher academic productivity and achievement Aggressive students in both conditions followed through 6th grade and first grade classroom effects persisted First grade experience sets academic and behavioral trajectory Reschly RTI

75 Tier I: Implications of Behavior
Classroom organization and behavior management are crucial to student success “Teacher’s skills at classroom management were then critical to children’s socialization, particularly in the face of family poverty.” (Kellam, et al., 1998a, p. 182) “Teacher training typically does not provide effective methods and experience in classroom behavior management.” (Kellam, et al., 1998, p. 182). Relatively simple, cost effective interventions can produce large and persistent effects Reschly RTI

76 Summary of Tier I Universal level, all students
Scientifically-based, right content and direct instruction Greater intensity and increased measurement precision for students below benchmark trajectories Criterion for success? 80% to 85% are at or above benchmarks Assess classrooms, schools, districts Identify students needing additional assistance Reschly RTI

77 Example of Tier II academic intervention
Tier II: Secondary Prevention (Strategic Intervention) (Standard Protocol and Problem Solving) Goals: Move performance to benchmark trajectories and, If needed, consider more intensive interventions Example of Tier II academic intervention Small group, N=4-5, pull out, similar needs 30 to 35 minutes per day in addition to classroom instruction Progress monitoring weekly 10 to 20 weeks of instruction 5-component reading interventions, with emphasis on weak components Early identification-early intervention in general educ. Reschly RTI

78 Standard Protocol Reading Models for Tier II
U Texas, Vaughn Florida State Torgesen Reading five domains taught each day Direct instruction Weekly progress monitoring Individual graphs, progress against goals referenced to benchmarks Decisions determined by student response Fade Tier II and return to general education Consider Tier III based on insufficient response Reschly RTI

79 Tier II: Behavior Targeted individual interventions in classrooms and in standard protocol academic settings Application of problem solving steps and criteria Behavior consultation model (not discussed here) Behavior is significant predictor of Tier I and Tier II effects Improved behavior often is crucial to persistence of academic interventions effects over time and generalization to classroom settings Reschly RTI

80 Graph Current Status Words Correct Per Minute Benchmark=24 Egbert=11
Weeks Reschly RTI

81 Determine Goal: Class=1
Determine Goal: Class=1.5 wd growth per week; Egbert Goal: 2 wd growth per week Words Correct Per Minute Benchmark Class=24 Egbert=11 Egbert goal line Weeks Reschly RTI

82 Monitor Egbert’s Progress Relative to Goal
Words Correct Per Minute Benchmark Class=24 Egbert=11 Egbert goal line Weeks Reschly RTI

83 Formative Evaluation: Change Intervention
Words Correct Per Minute Benchmark Class=24 Egbert=11 Egbert goal line Weeks Reschly RTI

84 Continue Intervention and Monitor Progress
Change Intervention Words Correct Per Minute Benchmark Class=24 Egbert=11 Egbert goal line Weeks Reschly RTI

85 Raise Goal to 2.5 WCM Growth
Change Intervention Change Goal Words Correct Per Minute Benchmark Class=24 Egbert=11 Egbert goal line Weeks Reschly RTI

86 Continue Intervention and Monitor Progress
Change Intervention Change Goal Fade Tier II Words Correct Per Minute Benchmark Class=24 Egbert=11 Egbert goal line Weeks Reschly RTI

87 Decisions Re: Egbert Fade Tier II academic intervention
Reduce number of weekly sessions Monitor progress to ensure continued progress Evaluate behavioral intervention (not shown here) Depending on results, consider enhancing, fading, or discontinuing Do NOT consider more intensive interventions Reschly RTI

88 Prevention of Special Education
President’s Commission (2002) Values and Outcomes: Efficacy of special education is not universally documented—lowered expectations, reduced academic press Later educational opportunities typically are better if learning and behavior problems can be resolved in early grades Probable later career opportunities are better if students can complete general education programs Prevention and early intervention enhance positive outcomes and expand educational and career opportunities Reschly RTI

89 Case II: Egberta, Academic Intervention
Egberta (Egbert’s twin sister) Similar performance in reading No behavioral issues, described as quiet, cooperative child who tries hard and does not disrupt the class Would not have been referred by teacher, but discovered through universal screening Reschly RTI

90 Egberta: Determine Goal: Class=1
Egberta: Determine Goal: Class=1.5 wd growth per week; Egberta Goal: 2 wd growth per week Words Correct Per Minute Benchmark Class=24 Egberta=11 Egbert goal line Weeks Reschly RTI

91 Monitor Egberta’s Progress Relative to Goal
Words Correct Per Minute Benchmark Class=24 Egberta=11 Egberta goal line Weeks Reschly RTI

92 Change Egberta’s Intervention
Words Correct Per Minute Benchmark Class=24 Egberta=11 Egberta goal line Weeks Reschly RTI

93 Implement Revised Intervention and Continue to Monitor Progress
Change Intervention Words Correct Per Minute Benchmark Egberta goal line Weeks Reschly RTI

94 Implement Second Intervention Revision
Change Intervention Words Correct Per Minute Benchmark Egberta goal line Weeks Reschly RTI

95 Gap Not Closing: Consider Eligibility and More Intensive Interventions
Change Intervention Class WCM=54 Words Correct Per Minute Benchmark Egberta WCM=32 Weeks Reschly RTI

96 Old Models of SLD Cognitive processing option ??
Scatter is normal, virtually all children will show significant strengths and weaknesses Pattern of cognitive processes unrelated to More accurate SLD identification Improved instruction Improved child outcomes No scientifically-based studies showing benefits of designing instruction from cognitive profiles Vested interests? and Burden of proof Reschly RTI

97 Cognitive Processing and Interventions: ATI or Matching Strengths Effects
Treatment/Intervention Effect Size Modality Matched Instr. (Aud.) +.03 Modality Matched Instr. (Vis.) +.04 Simultaneous/Successive ?? Right Brain/Left Brain .?? Cultural Leaning Style NOTHING FOR KIDS FEEL GOOD ASSESSMENT Reschly RTI

98 Results of ATI Research
King of England describing his Danish brother-in-law: There is nothing there. Cronbach, (1975). “Once we attend to interactions, we enter a hall of mirrors that extends to infinity.” (p. 119) Kavale (1999) No supportive data, but cannot kill “Phoenix-like” processing claims Vaughn and Linan-Thompson (2003), “There is no empirical support for the use of modality-matched instruction or learning styles as a means to enhance outcomes for students with LD.” (p. 142). Reschly RTI

99 Challenge to Cognitive Processing Advocates in SLD
Show the field one scientifically-based study confirming a statistically significant interaction between cognitive processing pattern and teaching methodology OR Document how cognitive processing can be used by practitioners to make reliable and valid SLD diagnoses, using the joint APA-AERA-NCME Test Standards? Reschly RTI

100 What is a Comprehensive Evaluation
Note Federal Regulation, (g) The child is assessed in all areas related to the suspected disability, including, if appropriate, health, vision, hearing, social and emotional status, general intelligence, academic performance, communicative status, and motor abilities. (34 C.F.R Meaning? Note “if appropriate” Reschly RTI

101 Federal Requirements Multiple domains must be considered
Screening in multiple domains followed by, if appropriate, …… If potential educationally related deficits are suggested by screening, THEN In depth assessment in the domain Principle: If screening suggests adequate functioning, then in depth assessment is wasteful and irrelevant Reschly RTI

102 Comprehensive Evaluation: After Tier II
Domain Screening If depth, if appropriate Possible Decision Health Nurse, records Referral MD Eval Medical condition Vision Ophthalmology Visual Impairment Hearing Otological, Audiologist Hearing Impairment Intelligence Records, Tch ratings, ach. tests Psychologist, Gen’l Intell Functioning (GIF) Sig subaverage GIF, possible MR, possible sp ed Reschly RTI

103 Comprehensive Evaluation: After Tier II
Domain Screening In Depth, If Appropriate Possible Decision Reading Class work, Tch eval., CBM, group tests Individual tests, diagnostic tests More intense intervention, possible sp ed Math Adaptive Behavior Records, Tch checklist Observations Parent interview Possible eligibility for MR Written Language Reschly RTI

104 Comprehensive Evaluation: Post Tier II
Domain Screening In depth, if appropriate Possible Decision Communication Tchr Observations, Sp/L screening Sp/L eval, tests, obs. Sp/Lang need, therapy Behavior Tchr judgment, checklists, nomination Observation, Interview, Indiv intervention Emotional Regulation More intense intervention, possible sp ed Motor Physical, Tch, PE observations Medical evaluation Reschly RTI

105 Egberta Consideration of Eligibility
Levels Difference: Large performance differences compared to peers and benchmark expectations in relevant domains of behavior Rate Difference: Large differences in rate of learning compared to peers and trajectories toward benchmark standards when provided with high quality interventions implemented over a significant period Documented Adverse Impact on Education Documented Need for Special Education Exit Criteria Exclusion Factors: Rule out MR etc. Reschly RTI

106 Digression: Neuropsychology and Neuroscience
Distinguish between neuropsychology and neuroscience Neuropsychology is dependent on psychometric profiles Difference scores are less reliable Scatter is normal Base rates for profile variations Flat profiles are atypical Nearly all have profile variations Reschly RTI

107 Neuroscience Findings
Instruction in decoding changes brain functioning on fMRI Neuroscience findings generally refute traditional neuropsychology with learning problems Neurological functioning more dynamic, less static Little practical application of fMRI to current school psychology practice No unique LD markers!! Reschly RTI

108 Digression: fMRI Studies
Science article: fMRIs of boys and girls engaged in decoding-Girls used both hemispheres, boys one Implications?? Do fMRI to find real LD? Abandon IQ and go to fMRIs Trade the hatchback for an 18 wheeler Cost issues: $3m per machine, plus maintenance Reschly RTI

109 More fMRI Implications
Delay reading until both hemispheres work for males simultaneously So that is going to happen? Equity issue---restrict girls to one hemisphere; hemispherectomy Hey, fair is fair Improve male-female communication if females could use only one hemisphere at a time Wait until I tell Krisann Reschly RTI

110 RTI in Special Education Programs
Special education programs should be, Scientifically based Matched to student need Progress monitoring against goals (exit criteria) Formative evaluation Goal of passing benchmark tests, exiting Current special education programs???? Reschly RTI

111 Special Education for Students with High Incidence Disabilities
Mild Mental Retardation Emotional Disturbance Specific Learning Disability Other Health Impaired-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rate is 1% or more of the general student population Reschly RTI

112 High Incidence Disabilities
School age identification Usually not identified as adults Teacher referral due to poor achievement plus, for many, disruptive behavior No identifiable biological anomaly, normal appearance Reading is a major concern for most (70%-80%) Reschly RTI

113 Improving Special Education with RTI
Diagnosis (see previous segment) Graphs showing insufficient progress with high quality general education interventions at Tiers I and II Other Tier III interventions are not sufficient Special education eligibility determined Then what???? Reschly RTI

114 Improving IEPs Connect individual evaluation with IEP with Special Education Interventions Critical IEP Components (relevant to the intervention) (not an exhaustive list) Present Levels of Educational Performance Measurable Annual Goals Specifically designed instruction provided by qualified personnel Participation in the general education curriculum and state wide assessments Reschly RTI

115 Present Levels of Educational Performance
Must be related to the full and individual evaluation Desirable Stated in terms of the school curriculum Specification of gaps between current performance and trajectories toward reaching benchmarks Exit criteria for special education dismissal Reschly RTI

116 Measurable Annual Goals
Goals are described in objective, measurable terms Goals are stated in terms of the general education curriculum Rate of progress specified, graphed Skills specified Progress compared to goals Interventions changed or goals changed depending on progress Reschly RTI

117 Specially Designed Instruction
Uniqueness of special education is NOT in different methodologies BUT IS IN Intensity, frequency of progress monitoring and formative evaluation, precision of goals, and specificity of instruction Intensity involves time, group size Specificity of instruction, thoroughness of skills specification, intentional teaching, integration with other skills Application of explicit, systematic instructional methods Reschly RTI

118 Special Education Final Remarks
Special education can be effective Set of services brought to students, not a place Integrated with general education curriculum Strong accountability Implementation of scientifically based interventions with Specification of goals Frequent progress monitoring Formative evaluation Exit criteria Reschly RTI

119 Critical Skills/Competencies
Problem solving-interviewing skills Behavior assessment including CBM Powerful instructional interventions Powerful behavior change interventions Relationship skills Tailoring assessment to referral concerns Reschly RTI

120 Continuing Education: Problem solving and system design
Reschly, D. J., Tilly, W. D. III, & Grimes, J. P. (Eds.). (1999). Special education in transition: Functional assessment and noncategorical programming. Longmont, CO: Sopris West. Bergan, J. R., & Kratochwill, T. R. (1990). Behavioral consultation and therapy. New York: Plenum. Shinn, M. R. (Ed.). (1989). Curriculum-based measurement: Assessing special children. New York: Guilford Press. Reschly RTI

121 Continuing Education: CBM, CBE, Behavioral Assessment
Shinn, M. R. (Ed.) (1998). Advanced applications of curriculum-based measurement: New York: Guilford Press. Shapiro, E. S. (Ed.) (1996). Academic skills problems: Direct assessment and intervention (2nd Ed.). New York: Guilford Press. Shapiro, E. S., & Kratochwill, T. R. (Eds.). (2000). Behavioral assessment in schools: Theory, research, and clinical applications (2nd Ed.). New York: Guilford Press. Reschly RTI

122 Continuing Education: Academic and Behavioral Interventions
Sulzer-Azaroff, B., & Mayer, G. R. (1991). Behavior analysis for lasting change. Fort Worth, TX: Holt, Rinehart, Winston. Howell, K. & Nolet, V. (2000). Curriculum-based evaluation: Teaching and decision making (3rd Ed.). Atlanta, GA: Wadsworth. Shinn, M.R., Walker, H.M., & Stoner, G. (2002).  Interventions for academic and behaviors problems II:  Preventive and remedial approaches.  Bethesda, MD: NASP Reschly RTI

123 Is the Past the Future? Paradigm Shift
Reschly & Ysseldyke, 2002, Vision of a different future “Insight” absent explicit ties to effective interventions is useless to the student Why change? Better answers to old problems Improved knowledge base and technology Different questions-Eligibility vs Outcomes Outcomes criteria guide practice Reschly, D. J., & Ysseldyke, J. E. (2002). Paradigm shift: The past is not the future. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.) Best practices in school psychology IV (4th Ed.) (pp. 3-20). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists. Reschly RTI

124 Correlational to Experimental Science
Cronbach’s Two Disciplines Correlational: Promote human welfare through measurement of natural human variations and then assigning (placing) persons in treatments that are appropriate to their abilities: In school psychology, refer-test-place Experimental: Promote human welfare by implementing effective treatments School psychology, problem solving Reschly RTI

125 Cronbach’s Merger: ATI
The ATI Manifesto: “For any potential problem there is some best group of treatments to use and some best allocation of persons to treatment.” (Cronbach, 1957, p.680) Failure of ATI: "Once we attend to interactions, we enter a hall of mirrors that extends to infinity." (Cronbach, 1975, p. 119 ATI Today: Phoenix like (Kavale & Forness, 1999); No evidence to support ATI with LD (Vaughn and Linan-Thompson, 2003) Reschly RTI

126 Paradigm Shift: Problem Solving and RTI
Experimental methods: Time Series Analyses; "One monitors responses to the treatment and adjusts it .." (Cronbach, 1975, p. 126). Problem Solving connects scientific instructional-intervention literature to academic and behavioral needs of children RtI: Criteria to determine needs, make changes in programs, and select more intensive interventions as needed Reschly RTI

127 Paradigm Shift: What Happens to School Psychologists
Roles change, less assessment and more intervention Roles move toward universally endorsed ideal roles since 1955 School psychology employment remains stable or grows School psychology satisfaction is the same or higher Reschly RTI

128 Modern Foundations of Problem Solving and RtI
Bergan (Kratochwill) Behavioral Consultation Multiple step problem solving process Connects science to practice in terms of child outcomes Deno & Mirkin Data-based program modification Assessment of academic and behavior growth with intervention revision rules Reschly RTI

129 Purpose of Our Activities The Why of Our Professions
Some Questions: 1. Outcomes criterion: Effects of services? 2. Predict outcomes OR change behavior and disconfirm predictions? 3. Focus on hypothetical constructs or increase defined competencies in crucial domains of behavior 4. Expand opportunities for meaningful choices or make placements Can We Do Better?? If So, What is Our Obligation? Reschly RTI

130 Current Roles of School Psychologists in the U.S. and Iowa
22.6 Estimated Hours Per Week 14.6 12.2 9.2 7.3 6.6 3.6 2.6 Problem Solving Consultation Assessment Direct Intervention Systems Organizational Consultation Research/ Evaluation School Psychology Role Reschly RTI

131 School Psychology Assessment in Traditional
and Alternative Delivery Systems 28.69 20.44 18.16 17.59 Times Per Month 10.64 10.49 7.11 0.44 0.00 0.04 Ability Educational Behavior Projectives V-M Pre-Sch Social/ Observation Fam Emotional A.B Reschly RTI

132 Assessment of Educational Skills:
U.S. and Iowa 12.12 4.04 3.51 2.88 1.49 1.43 1.61 0.52 0.0 0.00 0.03 0.00 K-TEA Key-Math PIAT WRMT WRAT CBM/CBE W-J ACH WIAT Other Reschly RTI

133 School Psychologists’ Job Satisfaction
in the U.S. and Iowa 4.64 3.81 3.54 High Job Satisfaction Low 3.34 2.95 2.29 Job Satisfaction Dimension Reschly RTI

134 National School Psychology Growth
30,154 in 03-04 Trend Line Reschly RTI

135 Summary Moving from where we are to where we need to be is a huge challenge for the new century BUT I Believe The Best Is Yet To Be Reschly RTI

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