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Genetics Chapter 11.

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Presentation on theme: "Genetics Chapter 11."— Presentation transcript:

1 Genetics Chapter 11

2 Heredity Passing of traits from parent to offspring

3 Genetics The study of heredity
Gregor Mendel- Austrian monk known as the “father of genetics”

4 Mendel’s Four Hypotheses
For each inherited trait, an individual has a copy of that gene from each parent. There are alternate versions of genes, called alleles. (ex: freckles or no freckles)

5 Hypothesis continued When 2 different alleles occur together, one of them may be completely expressed (dominant), while the other may not be observed (recessive). 4. Alleles separate independently, so that each gamete only carries 1 allele for that trait.

6 Monohybrid cross Mendel began with 1 trait (monohybrid) crosses
He bred pea plants to produce several generations P- the parent generation F1 - the first filial generation F2 - second filial generation


8 Mendel concluded that each parent has two separate “factors” for a particular trait
“Factors” are now called genes.

9 Mendel’s Laws of Heredity
Law of Segregation- two alleles separate when gametes are formed Law of Independent Assortment- alleles of different genes separate independently of one another during gamete formation

10 Mendel’s Law of Segregation
Homozygous dominant parent Homozygous recessive parent Mendel’s Law of Segregation (chromosomes duplicated before meiosis) meiosis I meiosis II (gametes) (gametes) fertilization produces heterozygous offspring Fig. 11-5, p.172

11 Independent Assortment
Nucleus of a diploid (2n) reproductive cell with two pairs of homologous chromosomes Possible alignments of the two homologous chromosomes during metaphase I of meiosis The resulting alignments at metaphase II Allelic combinations possible in gametes 1/4 AB 1/4 ab 1/4 Ab 1/4 aB Fig. 11-8, p.174

12 Some modern genetic terms
Alleles are represented by letters Dominant allele is a capital letter Recessive allele is a lower case letter

13 Homozygous- identical alleles for a specific trait (BB, FF, rr, tt)
Heterozygous- alleles are different for a specific trait (Bb, Ff, Rr, Tt) (aka “hybrid”) Genotype- the set of alleles an individual inherits for a trait (i.e.- Rr, Ww, ff) Phenotype- the physical expression of a trait (i.e. blue eyes, freckles, dimples)

14 Punnett Square Predicts possible outcomes of traits
Shows all possible outcomes of a genetic cross

15 Probability (likelihood that an event will occur) of a genetic outcome can be predicted
Ex: cross two heterozygous individuals Aa x Aa predict ratios of 3:1 for phenotype and 1:2:1 for genotype

16 Practice Curly hair is dominant over straight hair. A man with straight hair and a woman who is heterozygous for curly hair have a child. What is the probability that this child will have straight hair?

17 Incomplete Dominance- when an individual shows a combination of the inherited alleles.
Ex: red snapdragon x white snapdragon will produce a pink snapdragon straight hair x curly hair = wavy hair

18 Codominance- 2 dominant alleles are expressed at the same time
Ex: Roan horses show both red and white hairs in equal numbers

19 Patterns of heredity can be very complex
Sex-linked trait- a trait whose alleles is located on the X chromosome (most are recessive) Polygenic trait- trait where several genes influence the outcome (eye color, hair color, skin color, height, weight)

20 Multiple Alleles- genes with 3 or more alleles
- Blood type is an example of multiple alleles because we have A, B and O alleles and 4 possible blood type outcomes (A, B, AB and O)

21 ABO Blood Type Range of genotypes: IAIA IBIB or or IAi IAIB IBi ii
Fig a, p.176

22 Diploid Number of chromosomes found in the body or somatic cells of an organism “2n”

23 Haploid Number of chromosomes found in the gametes of an organism “n”

24 Meiosis The type of cell division that produces gametes
Gametes = sex cells female gamete = egg or ovum (plural = ova) male gamete = sperm

25 Meiosis

26 Formation of sperm and egg


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