2 Gregor Mendel Genetics is the study of heredity. Mendel was an Austrian monk who studied genetics in the 1860s using garden peas.Had no knowledge of cells or chromosomes.Did not have a microscope.
3 Mendel knew that… Each male flower part produced pollen (sperm) Each female flower part produced egg cells.
4 FertilizationFertilization: During sexual reproduction, when sperm and egg cells join to produce a new cell.Pea flowers are self-pollinating.The seeds produced from self-pollination inherit all of their characteristics from the single “parent”.
5 Cross-PollinationMendel had true-breeding plants, that when allowed to self-pollinate, would produce identical offspring to themselvesCross PollinationMendel was able to produce seeds that had 2 different parents, each with different characteristics.
6 Genes and DominanceTrait = a specific characteristic that varies from one individual to the next.Examples: Height, Eye Color, Skin ColorMendel studied seven pea plant traits, each with two contrasting characters.He crossed plants with each of the seven contrasting characters and studied their offspring.
7 Theories of Inheritance Theories of inheritance in Mendel’s time:Based on blendingParents of contrasting appearance produce offspring of intermediate appearanceMendel’s findings were in contrast with thisHe formulated the particulate theory of inheritanceInheritance involves reshuffling of genes from generation to generation
8 Mendel’s F1 Crosses on Pea Plants Mendel’s F1 Crosses on Pea Plants
9 Mendel’s first Conclusion Mendel's first conclusion was that biological inheritance is determined by factors that are passed from one generation to the next.Today, scientists call the factors that determine traits genes.
10 AllelesEach of the traits Mendel studied was controlled by one gene that occurred in two contrasting forms that produced different characters for each trait.The different forms of a gene are called alleles.
11 Mendel’s Second Conclusion is called the principle of dominance.The principle of dominance states that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive.
12 SegregationMendel crossed the F1 generation with itself to produce the F2 (second filial) generation.The traits controlled by recessive alleles reappeared in one fourth of the F2 plants.
13 F1 Generation F2 Generation P Generation Tall Short Tall Tall Tall SegregationF1 GenerationF2 GenerationP GenerationWhen Mendel allowed the F1 plants to reproduce by self-pollination, the traits controlled by recessive alleles reappeared in about one fourth of the F2 plants in each cross.TallShortTallTallTallTallTallShortCopyright Pearson Prentice Hall
14 SegregationEach individual has a pair of factors (alleles) for each traitThe factors (alleles) segregate (separate) during gamete (sperm & egg) formationEach gamete contains only one factor (allele) from each pairFertilization gives the offspring two factors for each trait
16 Modern View of Genetics Each trait in a pea plant is controlled by two alleles (alternate forms of a gene)Dominant allele (capital letter) masks the expression of the recessive allele (lower-case)Alleles occur on a homologous pair of chromosomes at a particular gene locusHomozygous = identical alleles (AA or aa)Heterozygous = different alleles (Aa)
17 A capital letter represents the dominant allele for tall. A lowercase letter represents the recessive allele for short.In this example,T = tallt = short
18 Genotype vs. Phenotype Genotype Phenotype Refers to the two alleles an individual has for a specific traitIf identical, genotype is homozygousIf different, genotype is heterozygousPhenotypeRefers to the physical appearance of the individual
19 Punnett SquaresTable listing possible genotypes resulting from a cross.All possible sperm genotypes are lined up on one sideAll possible egg genotypes are lined up on the other sideEvery possible zygote genotypes are placed within the squares
21 Monohybrid Cross Only looks at one trait. Punnett square contains 4 boxes.Individuals with recessive phenotype always have the homozygous recessive genotypeHowever, individuals with dominant phenotype:May be homozygous dominant, orHeterozygous
22 Monohybrid Test CrossUsed to determine the genotype of an individual showing the dominant phenotype.Cross the organism with the undetermined dominant genotype with an organism with the recessive genotype.
23 Example Test CrossSuppose in humans, tongue- rolling is a dominant trait…we will represent it with a T.We want to find the genotype of a man who can roll is tongue.He could be TT…or Tt.To test this, we would perform a cross between him and an individual who cannot roll their tongue. (tt)
24 Dihybrid CrossPredicts outcomes of a cross looking at 2 traits at the same time.Example: Flower height and color, Hair color and eye color.Punnett Square contains 16 boxes.
25 Law of Independent Assortment Genes for different traits are inherited independently of each other.What does this mean?Things like eye color and hair color are not “linked” or inherited together. Just because you inherit blue eyes from your mom does not mean you will also inherit her blonde hair.
26 ExampleIn pea plants, Round Seeds ( R) are dominant to Wrinkled Seeds (r) and Yellow Seeds (Y) are dominant to green seeds (y)
27 Practice ProblemIn humans, Brown hair (H) is dominant to Blonde hair (h) and Brown eyes (B) are dominant to Blue eyes (b).Create a punnett square crossing parents who are both heterozygous for both traits.
28 Exceptions to Mendel’s Rules Incomplete DominanceCo-DominanceMultiple AllelesPolygenic Traits
29 Incomplete DominanceWhen one allele is not completely dominant over the other.The heterozygous genotype shows a BLEND of the two homozygous phenotypes.
31 Codominance Both alleles contribute to the phenotype. In certain varieties of cows, the allele for a brown coat is codominant with the allele for a white coat.Heterozygous cows look like:
32 Multiple Alleles More than 2 possible alleles exist for a single gene. An individual cannot have more than 2, but there are more than 2 possible alleles that can combine together.I.E. Not just a dominant and a recessive.
33 Example In blood typing, there are 3 alleles: A (IA), B (IB), and O (i).The combination of 2 alleles that each individual person has, determines their blood type.
34 IA IA IA i IB IB IB i IA IB ii Blood Type Genotype Can Receive Blood FromAIA IAIA iA or OBIB IBIB iB or OABIA IBA, B, AB, or OOii
35 Polygenic Traits Traits controlled by more than one gene. Example: Skin Color.