5 Epidermis Surface portion of the skin Stratum basale or stratum germinativumStratum corneum
6 Dermis Contains most of the accessory structures of the skin Blood vesselsNervesSweat glandsOil glandsHairDermal papillae
7 Checkpoint 6-1: The skin and all its associated structures comprise a body system. What is the name of this system?Checkpoint 6-2: The skin itself is composed of two layers. Moving from the superficial to the deeper layer, what are the names of these two layers?
8 Subcutaneous Layer Connects the skin to the surface muscles Loose connective tissueAdipose (fat) tissueBlood vesselsNerves and nerve endings
9 Checkpoint 6-3: What is the composition of the subcutaneous layer?
10 Question: In what layer of the skin do you find the sebaceous glands? a. dermis b. stratum corneum c. subcutaneous
21 Functions of the Skin Four major functions Protection against infectionProtection against dehydration (drying)Regulation of body temperatureCollection of sensory information
22 Protection Against Infection Intact skin forms a primary barrier against invasionInterlocking pattern resists penetrationShedding removes pathogensProtects against bacterial toxinsProtects against some harmful environmental chemicals
23 Protection Against Dehydration Skin prevents water loss by evaporationKeratin in the epidermisSebum release from the sebaceous glands
24 Regulation of Body Temperature Loss of excess heat and protection from cold are important functions of the skinConstriction of blood vesselsDilation of blood vesselsEvaporation of perspiration
25 Collection of Sensory Information Skin has many nerve endings and other special receptorsFree nerve endingsTouch receptors (Meissner corpuscle)Deep pressure receptors (Pacinian corpuscle)
26 Other Activities of the Skin Absorption of substances such as medicationsExcretionWaterElectrolytesWastesManufacture of vitamin D
27 Checkpoint 6-7: What two mechanisms are used to regulate temperature through the skin?
28 Question: True or False?: Gas exchange is a function of the skin.
29 Answer: False: No, gas exchange is not a function of the skin; the skin does not “breathe.”
30 Observation of the Skin Skin attributes can indicate a serious systemic disorder
31 Color Factors that influence skin color Amount of pigment in the epidermisMelaninCaroteneDiscolorationPallor: pale skin, reduced blood flowFlushing: redness, as in feverCyanosis: bluish color of skin; lack of oxygen in bloodYellow skin: jaundice, bilirubin in blood; carotenemia from excessive intake of carrots or other deeply colored vegetables
32 Checkpoint 6-8: What are some pigments that impart color to the skin?
33 Lesions Any wound or local damage to tissue Surface lesions Macule PapuleVesiclePustuleDeeper lesionsExcoriationLacerationUlcerFissure
37 Burns Categorized by Depth of damage Superficial partial-thickness Deep partial-thicknessFull-thicknessAmount of body surface area (BSA) involvedRule of ninesLund and Browder method
38 Question: What is the Rule of Nines used for. a Question: What is the Rule of Nines used for? a. to measure the severity of acne b. to determine the depth of decubitus ulcers c. to calculate the percentage of body surface area affected by a burn
39 Answer: c. to calculate the percentage of body surface area affected by a burn
40 Tissue Repair Wound healing Occurs only in areas with actively dividing cellsEpithelial tissuesConnective tissuesMinimally in muscle and nervous tissueIs affected byNutritionBlood supplyInfectionAge
41 Checkpoint 6-10: What two categories of tissues repair themselves most easily?
42 Effects of Aging on the Integumentary System Changes inSkinTissuesPigmentHairSweat glandsCirculationFingernails and toenails
43 Care of the Skin Proper nutrition Adequate circulation Regular cleansingRemoves dirt and dead skinSustains slightly acid environment to inhibit bacteriaProtection from sunlightExposure to UV light causes genetic mutations in skin that can lead to cancer, and causes premature aging.
44 Skin DisordersRange from superficial to deep-seated
45 Dermatitis Inflammation of the skin Dermatosis is any skin disease Atopic dermatitis
46 Psoriasis Chronic, recurrent overgrowth of epidermis Sharply outlined red (erythematous) areasFlat areas (plaques) covered with silvery scalesA hereditary pattern sometimes presentImmune disorder may be involved
47 Checkpoint 6-11: What is the difference between dermatosis and dermatitis?
48 Cancer Skin cancer is most common form of cancer in the United States Basal cell carcinomaSquamous cell carcinomaMelanoma
49 Checkpoint 6-12: What is the name for a cancer of the skin’s pigment-producing cells?
50 Acne and Other Skin Infections Sebaceous glands diseaseImpetigoStaphylococcal or streptococcal originViral infectionsHerpes simplex virusHerpes zoster virus (shingles)Human papillomavirus (HPV) (wart or verruca)Fungal infectionsTinea or ringworm
51 Checkpoint 6-13: What are some viruses that affect the skin? Checkpoint 6-14: What causes tinea or ringworm infections?
52 Question: Acne is a disease of what component of the integumentary system? a. sebaceous glands b. hair follicles c. epidermis