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**Section 2: Standards of Measurement**

Chapter 1: The Nature of Science Section 2: Standards of Measurement

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Learning Goals Name the prefixes used in SI and indicate what multiple of ten each one represents. Identify SI units and symbols. Convert related SI units.

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Units and Standards Standard: exact quantity that people agree to use for comparison.

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**Measurement Systems Imperial system of measurement**

Feet Pounds Gallons Only 3 countries do not use the metric system of measurement: U.S.A., Myanmar, and Liberia

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Measurement Systems International System of Units (SI): an improved version of the metric system. Understood by scientists worldwide Based on multiples of 10 and uses prefixes to indicate a specific multiple.

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**Measurement Systems SI Base Units: Length – meters (m)**

Mass – grams (g) Liquid volume – liters (L) Time – seconds (s)

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**See the “Metric Toolbox” or Page 15 of your textbook for more**

Measurement Systems SI Prefixes: Kilo (k) – x1000 Centi (c) – x 0.01 or 1/100 Milli (m) – x or 1/1000 See the “Metric Toolbox” or Page 15 of your textbook for more

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**Measurement Systems Converting between SI Units:**

Use conversion factors: ratios that are used to change one unit to another

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Example There are 1000 mL in 1 L. How many mL are in 3 L?

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**Factor Label Method Write what you know on the left**

Write what you want on the right Put a conversion factor in the middle Cancel units on top and bottom Multiply top and divide bottom

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Example There are 100 cm in 1 m. How many cm are in 2.75 m?

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Example How long, in centimeters, is a 3,075 mm rope?

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Let’s Practice!

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Measuring Distance Length is measured using a unit appropriate for the distance between two points.

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Measuring Distance The SI unit of length is the meter (m). mm cm

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**Measuring Volume Volume: the amount of space an object occupies.**

The base unit for liquid volume is liters (L) Beakers, flasks, and graduated cylinders (mL)

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**Measuring Volume Measuring solid volumes: Formulas: (V = l x w x h)**

Units in cubic centimeters (cm3) or cubic meters (m3) Water displacement

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Measuring Matter Mass: a measurement of the quantity of matter in an object. Base unit is grams (g) Balances can be used to measure mass

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**Measuring Matter Density: the mass per unit volume of a material.**

How much mass an object has in a certain amount of space. Density = mass/volume Unit for density is grams per milliliter (g/mL)

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**Measuring Time and Temperature**

SI unit of time = seconds (s) Metric unit of temperature = degrees Celsius (°C) SI unit of temperature = Kelvin (K)

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