# Atmosphere & Weather All About Winds.

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Atmosphere & Weather All About Winds

Drives winds and ocean currents.
Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Earth’s energy is provided by the SUN. Energy is important to us because it… Drives winds and ocean currents. Allows plants to grow to produce food. Provides nutrition for many animals. Earth’s energy is provided by the Sun.

When Earth receives energy from the Sun… What three things happen to that energy???
1. Reflected back into space. 2. Absorbed by the atmosphere. 3. Absorbed by the land and water.

Does land or water absorb the Sun’s energy faster???
Land…. Why? Because it takes more energy to warm up a body of water than it does to warm up an equal area of land.

In what three ways is heat transferred through the atmosphere???

Conduction is the transfer of energy when molecules bump into one another. Molecules are always in motion. When warmer, faster moving objects touch cooler , slow moving objects energy is transferred. As air moves over warm land or water, molecules in the air are heated by direct contact with each other. A process called??? Another example of conduction: Have you ever stepped onto the beach, and you almost instantly feel like your feet are on fire? The sand is hot, hot, hot… Well what happens is that the sand conducts heat to your feet. What did we just learn that conduction is? The transfer of energy or heat that occurs when molecules bump into one another (or collide). That is why when you step onto a hot beach, your foot’s temperature is cooler than the sand, so the heat will transfer to an area of cooler temperature… or in other words to your feet! Question: In the summertime when you walk barefoot on asphalt, are you experiencing conduction? Answer: YES! Answer: Conduction

What is convection??? Convection is the transfer of heat by the flow of material. As air is warmed, the molecules move apart = less dense air. Air pressures decreases because the air is less dense. In cold air molecules move closer together so the air is more dense and air pressure increases. Another example of conduction: Have you ever stepped onto the beach, and you almost instantly feel like your feet are on fire? The sand is hot, hot, hot… Well what happens is that the sand conducts heat to your feet. What did we just learn that conduction is? The transfer of energy or heat that occurs when molecules bump into one another (or collide). That is why when you step onto a hot beach, your foot’s temperature is cooler than the sand, so the heat will transfer to an area of cooler temperature… or in other words to your feet! Question: In the summertime when you walk barefoot on asphalt, are you experiencing conduction? Answer: YES! How do convection currents circulate heat throughout the atmosphere???

Convection currents circulate heat throughout the atmosphere by…
As air temperature increases, the air molecules move apart, and become less dense. Air pressure decreases in warmer temperatures, because fewer molecules are in the same space. Air Molecules Cooler, more dense air sinks while warmer, less dense air rises, forming a convection current!

A hydrosphere is the term that refers to all the water on Earth.
What is a hydrosphere??? A hydrosphere is the term that refers to all the water on Earth. The Water Cycle and the Hydrosphere combined… A hydrosphere is the term that describes all of the water on Earth’s surface. Water moves constantly between the hydrosphere and the atmosphere in the water cycle.

Thinking question… What do you think helps control how much of the Sun’s radiation is absorbed here on Earth ??? Another example of conduction: Have you ever stepped onto the beach, and you almost instantly feel like your feet are on fire? The sand is hot, hot, hot… Well what happens is that the sand conducts heat to your feet. What did we just learn that conduction is? The transfer of energy or heat that occurs when molecules bump into one another (or collide). That is why when you step onto a hot beach, your foot’s temperature is cooler than the sand, so the heat will transfer to an area of cooler temperature… or in other words to your feet! Question: In the summertime when you walk barefoot on asphalt, are you experiencing conduction? Answer: YES! Answer: Earth’s atmosphere!

Why can life exist here on Earth, and not on other planets???
Answer: Because the atmosphere holds just the right amount of the Sun's energy!!

Air Movement

Do different areas of Earth receive different amounts of radiation from the Sun?

So… what is wind??? Forming Wind
…The uneven heating of the Earth’s surface by the Sun causes some areas to be warmer than others… …Remember that warmer air expands, becoming less dense than cold air… causing air pressure to be lowered where the air is heated. … remember that warmer air expands becoming less dense than cold air… causing air pressure to be lower where the air is heated. So… what is wind???

Wind is… …the movement of air from an area of _higher_ pressure to an area of __lower___ pressure! Wind is the movement of air from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure.

Which portion of the Earth receives the most radiation from the Sun?
Answer: The Equator receives more radiation than areas to the North and South. The heated air at the equator is less dense, so it is displaced by denser, colder air, creating convection currents.

The cold, denser air coming from the poles, receives less radiation from the Sun, making the air at the poles much cooler. This results in the dense, high-pressure air sinking and moving along Earth’s surface. Note: Dense air sinking as less-dense air rises does not explain everything about wind… it is only one factor in forming wind!

The Coriolis Effect… What is it???
When the rotation of the Earth causes moving air and water to appear to turn to the right North of the equator and to the left South of the equator.

From what we have just discussed….
Can you describe to me what happens to the air pressure and weather near the equator??? Answer: The Sun heats the air and causes it to rise, creating low pressure and little wind... the rising air then cools, causing rain (or precipitation)! Remember: A stage of the water cycle in action!!!

Global Winds

Surface Winds What are the names of the three different surface winds that descend onto the Earth’s surface? 1. Trade Winds 2. Prevailing Westerlies 3. Polar Easterlies

Trade Winds: Also called Tropical Winds Used by sailors to establish early trade routes Found at 30º North and South Latitude Prevailing Westerlies: Blow in opposite direction from the trade winds Responsible for much of the movement of weather across North America Found between 30° and 60 ° Latitudes Polar Easterlies: Found near the poles Near N. Pole, they blow from Northeast to Southwest Near S. Pole, they blow from Southeast to Northwest

Winds in the Upper Troposphere
Narrow belts of strong winds, called Jet Streams, blow near the top of the troposphere. Polar jet streams form at the boundary of cold, dry polar air to the north and warmer, more moist tropical air to the south. The Jet Stream… Moves faster in the winter because the difference between the cold air and warm air is greater! Helps move storms across the country. Pilots when flying eastward take advantage and save time and fuel. Ask: What is the troposphere?

Local Wind Systems

Global wind systems determine the major weather patterns for the entire planet. Smaller wind systems affect local weather. If you live near a large body of water… like an ocean… you are familiar with two such wind systems – sea breezes and land breezes!

Local Wind: Sea Breeze The movement of air toward the land from the water (sea). Created during the day because solar radiation warms the land more than the water. Air over the land is heated by conduction. This heated air is less dense and has lower pressure. Cooler, denser air over the water has higher pressure and flows toward the warmer, less dense air. Resulting in a convection current that blows wind from the sea toward land.

Local Wind: Land Breeze
The movement of air toward the water from the land. Created at night because the land cools much more rapidly than the ocean water. Cooler, denser air above the land moves over the water, as the warm air over the water rises. Resulting in a convection current that blows wind from the sea toward land.

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