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The World of Islam and the Muslims

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1 The World of Islam and the Muslims

2 Islam: Born in Saudi Arabia, by Muhammad
Principal messages: “There is no god higher than Allah” “Muhammad is the messenger of Allah” “Muhammad was the last of the prophets sent by Allah and the keeper of the prophecy.” Muhammad was Arab, a nomadic people located on the Arabian Peninsula who believed (before Islam) in multiple gods Islam started with the journey of Muhammad and his followers to Madinah (Medina)

3 The Life of Muhammad Son of a merchant family, his parents died when he was 5 He was upset by the gap between the honesty and generosity of the poor and the greed of the rich Muhammad went to the hills to meditate; Muslims believe that he received revelations from God through the archangel Gabriel Muhammad believed that Moses and Jesus were prophets also, but that this was the latest and most important of the revelations These revelations to Muhammad are written in The Koran Muhammad and his followers, who were being persecuted, left Mecca for Medina; he converted the Bedouins to Islam; returned to Mecca with 10,000 men

4 5 Pillars of Islam Testimony/Belief– There is only one God (Allah); Muhammad is his messenger Prayer/Salaah, 5 times a day Charity/Zakaah – Must give part of your wealth to the poor Fasting/Siyaam – Must not eat or drink during daylight for the whole month of Ramadan Pilgrimage/Hajj – Should go to Mecca at least once in your life

5 Growth of Islam After Muhammad’s death, Abu Bakr was chosen as leader of the Muslims; established the Umayyad empire Between 632 and 750 A.D., the Islamic world expanded: In 636, defeated the Byzantines (the Eastern Roman Empire); controlled Syria In 640, conquered northern Egypt In 650, conquered Iraq, Persia (Iran) and all of Arabia In 661, General Mu’awiyah was made leader; he wanted to create a monarchy or dynasty, so that his sons and nephews would be the future leaders In 700 – conquered the Berbers in Northern Africa

6 Conflicts within Islam
In 717, Muslims attacked Constantinople (in Turkey), lost; they still controlled Northern Africa, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Iraq y Persia (Iran) In Iraq, Hussein, the second son of Ali (who was the son-in-law of Muhammad) started a rebellion against the Umayyads A rupture was created in the world of Islam, between those that supported the descendents of Ali as leaders of Islam (known as the Shiite) and those that accepted the Umayyads as leaders (Sunni)

7 Abbasid Dynasty Many Muslims believed that the Umayyads were corrupt
In 750, Abu al-Abbas, descendent of Muhammad’s uncle, defeated the Umayyads AD –Abbasid Dynasty ruled New capital of the Islamic world – Baghdad; the city and the dynasty prospered

8 Islamic Society A great deal of trade/commerce; covered markets, controlled by state inspectors Cities were (and are) very important to the development of Islam; are cultural, economic and political centers – Baghdad, Cairo, Damascus, Córdoba Agriculture – Majority of the people are farmers Under Islam, everyone is equal in the eyes of God, but: Islamic society does have an upper class of businessmen, high officials, and rich families Islamic societies had slaves from Africa and other countries; muslims may not hold other muslims as slaves

9 Women in the World of Islam
The Koran says that women have social and spiritual equality with men; are allowed to own property; Every woman is assigned a defender/custodian Fathers or other defenders decide who a woman is to marry Arab traditions do not treat women equally Many women are not allowed to leave their houses Women have to cover all of their body, and face Men may have no more than 4 wives Nevertheless, the position of women in Arab societies has improved as a result of Islam

10 Islamic Culture Knowledge is very important to Muslims; translated the works of the Greek philosophers Experts in mathematics; created the Arabic system of numbers (the one we use today; 1,2,3) Paper was introduced from China in 700s A.D Islamic philosopy: Ibn-Rushd, of Córdoba, Spain wrote about Aristotle Ibn Sina – created an encyclopedia of medicine Ibn-Khaldun – wrote history– he believed that civilizations have a cycle of life and death

11 Islamic Culture (continued)
Omar Khayyám – Arabian Nights/1001 Nights Architecture – Minaret – The tower of each mosque – where the leader calls the people to pray Alhambra – in Granada, España BETWEEN AD, ISLAM WAS THE CENTER OF INTELECTUAL, ARTISTIC, AND SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITY IN THE WORLD











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