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Chapter 6: The world of Islam (600 – 1500)

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6: The world of Islam (600 – 1500)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6: The world of Islam (600 – 1500)

2 Section 1: The Rise of Islam
The Arabs Arabian Peninsula Arabs Sheikh Allah The Black Stone Kaaba, in the city of Makkah (Mecca).

3 Section 1: The Rise of Islam
The Life of Muhammad Muhammad Khadija Revelations from God. angel Gabriel Quran Islam Muslims Madinah (Medina) Hijrah Bedouin Hajj

4 Section 1: The Rise of Islam
The Teachings of Muhammad Islam Monotheistic Salvation and an afterlife Muhammad Preacher but not divine Five Pillars of Islam Belief Prayer Charity Fasting Pilgrimage Shari’ ah Other principles of behavior

5 Section 2: The Arab Empire and Its Successors
Creation of an Arab Empire Abu Bakr Caliph Arab Conquest Jihad Arab Rule Madinah After Abu Bakr Conquered territories Muslim administrators were tolerant

6 Section 2: The Arab Empire and Its Successors
The Umayyads 661 – Mu’awiyah, the governor of Syria became Caliph Calipahate hereditary within his family Established the Umayyad Dynasty – capital from Madinah to Damascus, Syria Conquests 8th Century North Africa –Berbers 710 – Strait of Gibraltar Split in Islam The Umayyad Dynasty Revolt in Iraq Led by Hussein, son of Ali, the Son-in-law of Muhammad The revolt led to split in Islam Shia Sunni

7 Section 2: The Arab Empire and Its Successors
The Abbasid Dynasty In 750, Abu al-‘Abbas, descendant of Muhammad’s uncle, overthrew the Umayyad Dynasty Abbasid Rule new capital in Bagdad influence from the Persians ideal citizens Harun al-Rashid al-Ma’mun Trade routes The bureaucracy of the Caliph Vizier, advised the Caliph Decline and Division Problems did exist Rulers within the Empire would break away from the empire

8 Section 2: The Arab Empire and Its Successors
Seljuk Turks and the Crusades The Fatimids The Seljuk Turks Nomadic people from central Asia Sultan – “holder of power” The battle of Manzikert in 1071 The Crusades The Byzantine Emperor Alexius I 1169 – Saladin

9 Section 2: The Arab Empire and Its Successors
The Mongols Nomadic tribe, horse riding and very destructive 1258 – Hulegu strong hatred of Islam Mamluks Eventually the Mongols in the region converted to Islam

10 Section 3: Islamic Civilization
Prosperity in the Islamic World Trade was a key Morocco Role of the Cities Great Cities: Bagdad, Iran – Abbasid Dynasty Cairo, Egypt, - Fatimids Dynasty Damascus, Syria – Umayyad Dynasty Islamic cities were distinctive – Impressive structures were palaces, of the caliphs, and Mosques Bazaars – covered market   The Importance of Farming

11 Section 3: Islamic Civilization
Islamic Society Politics, economics, and social life are all covered in Islamic Teachings Social Structure All Muslim people are equal in the eyes of Allah Non-Muslims were not equal Slaves Slaves would serve in the military Slave women were domestic servants Islamic law stated that slaves should be treated fairly and should eventually be able to gain their freedom

12 Section 3: Islamic Civilization
The Role of Women Quran – men and women were spiritual and social equals Women Family and society All women had a male guardian (Adult family member) Men had to pay a dowry Older customs

13 Section 4: The Culture of Islam
Philosophy, Science and History Arabs – Translated Greek philosophy – Plato and Aristotle into Arabic Preservation of Knowledge Islamic Advancements Islamic Scholars Ibn-Rushd Scholars – contributions in mathematics and sciences Numerical system Astronomy Astrolabe Medicine Ibn Sina History Ibn-Khaldun Muqaddimah

14 Section 4: The Culture of Islam
Literature Omar Kyayyam (KY-YAHM) – wrote Rubaiyat and The Nights also called The Arabian Nights – a collection of folktales, fables and romance. Story of Aladdin and the magic lamp was added later along with other stories

15 Section 4: The Culture of Islam
Art and Architecture Mix of Arab, Persian, and Turkish Art in their Architecture Mosques Samarra Mosque Minaret muezzin Palaces Alhambra Art

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