4 Square RootsOpposite of squaring a number is taking the square root of a number.A number b is a square root of a number a if b2 = a.In order to find a square root of a, you need a # that, when squared, equals a.
5 Principal Square Roots The principal (positive) square root is noted asThe negative square root is noted as
6 RadicandsRadical expression is an expression containing a radical sign.Radicand is the expression under a radical sign.Note that if the radicand of a square root is a negative number, the radical is NOT a real number.
8 Perfect SquaresSquare roots of perfect square radicands simplify to rational numbers (numbers that can be written as a quotient of integers).Square roots of numbers that are not perfect squares (like 7, 10, etc.) are irrational numbers.IF REQUESTED, you can find a decimal approximation for these irrational numbers.Otherwise, leave them in radical form.
9 Perfect Square RootsRadicands might also contain variables and powers of variables.To avoid negative radicands, assume for this chapter that if a variable appears in the radicand, it represents positive numbers only.Example
10 Cube Roots The cube root of a real number a Note: a is not restricted to non-negative numbers for cubes.
12 nth Roots Other roots can be found, as well. The nth root of a is defined asIf the index, n, is even, the root is NOT a real number when a is negative.If the index is odd, the root will be a real number.
15 Product Rule for Radicals If and are real numbers,
16 Simplifying Radicals Example Simplify the following radical expressions.No perfect square factor, so the radical is already simplified.
17 Simplifying Radicals Example Simplify the following radical expressions.
18 Quotient Rule for Radicals If and are real numbers,
19 Simplifying Radicals Example Simplify the following radical expressions.
20 Adding and Subtracting Radicals § 15.3Adding and Subtracting Radicals
21 Sums and DifferencesRules in the previous section allowed us to split radicals that had a radicand which was a product or a quotient.We can NOT split sums or differences.
22 Like RadicalsIn previous chapters, we’ve discussed the concept of “like” terms.These are terms with the same variables raised to the same powers.They can be combined through addition and subtraction.Similarly, we can work with the concept of “like” radicals to combine radicals with the same radicand.Like radicals are radicals with the same index and the same radicand.Like radicals can also be combined with addition or subtraction by using the distributive property.
23 Adding and Subtracting Radical Expressions ExampleCan not simplifyCan not simplify
24 Adding and Subtracting Radical Expressions ExampleSimplify the following radical expression.
25 Adding and Subtracting Radical Expressions ExampleSimplify the following radical expression.
26 Adding and Subtracting Radical Expressions ExampleSimplify the following radical expression. Assume that variables represent positive real numbers.
27 Multiplying and Dividing Radicals § 15.4Multiplying and Dividing Radicals
28 Multiplying and Dividing Radical Expressions If and are real numbers,
29 Multiplying and Dividing Radical Expressions ExampleSimplify the following radical expressions.
30 Rationalizing the Denominator Many times it is helpful to rewrite a radical quotient with the radical confined to ONLY the numerator.If we rewrite the expression so that there is no radical in the denominator, it is called rationalizing the denominator.This process involves multiplying the quotient by a form of 1 that will eliminate the radical in the denominator.
31 Rationalizing the Denominator ExampleRationalize the denominator.
32 ConjugatesMany rational quotients have a sum or difference of terms in a denominator, rather than a single radical.In that case, we need to multiply by the conjugate of the numerator or denominator (which ever one we are rationalizing).The conjugate uses the same terms, but the opposite operation (+ or ).
33 Rationalizing the Denominator ExampleRationalize the denominator.
35 Extraneous SolutionsPower Rule (text only talks about squaring, but applies to other powers, as well).If both sides of an equation are raised to the same power, solutions of the new equation contain all the solutions of the original equation, but might also contain additional solutions.A proposed solution of the new equation that is NOT a solution of the original equation is an extraneous solution.
36 Solving Radical Equations ExampleSolve the following radical equation.Substitute into the original equation.trueSo the solution is x = 24.
37 Solving Radical Equations ExampleSolve the following radical equation.Substitute into the original equation.Does NOT check, since the left side of the equation is asking for the principal square root.So the solution is .
38 Solving Radical Equations Steps for Solving Radical EquationsIsolate one radical on one side of equal sign.Raise each side of the equation to a power equal to the index of the isolated radical, and simplify. (With square roots, the index is 2, so square both sides.)If equation still contains a radical, repeat steps 1 and 2. If not, solve equation.Check proposed solutions in the original equation.
39 Solving Radical Equations ExampleSolve the following radical equation.Substitute into the original equation.trueSo the solution is x = 2.
40 Solving Radical Equations ExampleSolve the following radical equation.
41 Solving Radical Equations Example continuedSubstitute the value for x into the original equation, to check the solution.trueSo the solution is x = 3.false
42 Solving Radical Equations ExampleSolve the following radical equation.
43 Solving Radical Equations Example continuedSubstitute the value for x into the original equation, to check the solution.falseSo the solution is .
44 Solving Radical Equations ExampleSolve the following radical equation.
45 Solving Radical Equations Example continuedSubstitute the value for x into the original equation, to check the solution.truetrueSo the solution is x = 4 or 20.
46 Radical Equations and Problem Solving § 15.6Radical Equations and Problem Solving
47 The Pythagorean Theorem In a right triangle, the sum of the squares of the lengths of the two legs is equal to the square of the length of the hypotenuse.(leg a)2 + (leg b)2 = (hypotenuse)2
48 Using the Pythagorean Theorem ExampleFind the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle when the length of the two legs are 2 inches and 7 inches.c2 = = = 53c = inches
49 The Distance FormulaBy using the Pythagorean Theorem, we can derive a formula for finding the distance between two points with coordinates (x1,y1) and (x2,y2).
50 The Distance Formula Example Find the distance between (5, 8) and (2, 2).