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Section 3Chapter 8

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1 Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Objectives 2 6 5 3 4 Simplifying Radical Expressions Use the product rule for radicals. Use the quotient rule for radicals. Simplify radicals. Simplify products and quotients of radicals with different indexes. Use the Pythagorean theorem. Use the distance formula. 8.3

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Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Use the product rule for radicals. Objective 1 Slide 8.3- 3

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Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Product Rule for Radicals If and are real numbers and n is a natural number, then That is, the product of two nth roots is the nth root of the product. Slide 8.3- 4 Use the product rule for radicals. Use the product rule only when the radicals have the same index.

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Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Multiply. Assume that all variables represent positive real numbers. Slide 8.3- 5 CLASSROOM EXAMPLE 1 Using the Product Rule Solution:

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Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Multiply. Assume that all variables represent positive real numbers. This expression cannot be simplified by using the product rule. Slide 8.3- 6 CLASSROOM EXAMPLE 2 Using the Product Rule Solution:

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Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Use the quotient rule for radicals. Objective 2 Slide 8.3- 7

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Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Quotient Rule for Radicals If and are real numbers, b ≠ 0, and n is a natural number, then That is, the nth root of a quotient is the quotient of the nth roots. Slide 8.3- 8 Use the quotient rule for radicals.

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Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Simplify. Assume that all variables represent positive real numbers. Slide 8.3- 9 CLASSROOM EXAMPLE 3 Using the Quotient Rule Solution:

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Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Simplify radicals. Objective 3 Slide 8.3- 10

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Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Simplify. Cannot be simplified further. Slide 8.3- 11 CLASSROOM EXAMPLE 4 Simplifying Roots of Numbers Solution:

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Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Conditions for a Simplified Radical 1. The radicand has no factor raised to a power greater than or equal to the index. 2. The radicand has no fractions. 3. No denominator contains a radical. 4. Exponents in the radicand and the index of the radical have greatest common factor 1. Slide 8.3- 12 Simplify radicals. Be careful with which factors belong outside the radical sign and which belong inside.

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Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Simplify. Assume that all variables represent positive real numbers. Slide 8.3- 13 CLASSROOM EXAMPLE 5 Simplifying Radicals Involving Variables Solution:

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Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Simplify. Assume that all variables represent positive real numbers. Slide 8.3- 14 CLASSROOM EXAMPLE 6 Simplifying Radicals by Using Smaller Indexes Solution:

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Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. If m is an integer, n and k are natural numbers, and all indicated roots exist, then Slide 8.3- 15 Simplify radicals.

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Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Simplify products and quotients of radicals with different indexes. Objective 4 Slide 8.3- 16

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Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Simplify. The indexes, 2 and 3, have a least common index of 6, use rational exponents to write each radical as a sixth root. Slide 8.3- 17 CLASSROOM EXAMPLE 7 Multiplying Radicals with Different Indexes Solution:

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Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Use the Pythagorean theorem. Objective 5 Slide 8.3- 18

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Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Pythagorean Theorem If c is the length of the longest side of a right triangle and a and b are lengths of the shorter sides, then c 2 = a 2 + b 2. The longest side is the hypotenuse, and the two shorter sides are the legs, of the triangle. The hypotenuse is the side opposite the right angle. Slide 8.3- 19 Use the Pythagorean theorem.

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Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Find the length of the unknown side of the triangle. c 2 = a 2 + b 2 c 2 = 14 2 + 8 2 c 2 = 196 + 64 c 2 = 260 The length of the hypotenuse is Slide 8.3- 20 CLASSROOM EXAMPLE 8 Using the Pythagorean Theorem Solution:

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Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Find the length of the unknown side of the triangle. c 2 = a 2 + b 2 6 2 = 4 2 + b 2 36 = 16 + b 2 20 = b 2 The length of the leg is Slide 8.3- 21 CLASSROOM EXAMPLE 8 Using the Pythagorean Theorem (cont’d) Solution:

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Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Use the distance formula. Objective 6 Slide 8.3- 22

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Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Distance Formula The distance between points (x 1, y 1 ) and (x 2, y 2 ) is Slide 8.3- 23 Use the distance formula.

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Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Find the distance between each pair of points. (2, –1) and (5, 3) Designate which points are (x 1, y 1 ) and (x 2, y 2 ). (x 1, y 1 ) = (2, –1) and (x 2, y 2 ) = (5, 3) Start with the x- value and y-value of the same point. Slide 8.3- 24 CLASSROOM EXAMPLE 9 Using the Distance Formula Solution:

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Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Find the distance between each pairs of points. (–3, 2) and (0, 4) Designate which points are (x 1, y 1 ) and (x 2, y 2 ). (x 1, y 1 ) = (–3, 2) and (x 2, y 2 ) = (0, 4) Slide 8.3- 25 CLASSROOM EXAMPLE 9 Using the Distance Formula (cont’d) Solution:

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