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Effective Self-directed Learning Malcolm Shepherd Knowles (1913 - 1997)

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Presentation on theme: "Effective Self-directed Learning Malcolm Shepherd Knowles (1913 - 1997)"— Presentation transcript:


2 Effective Self-directed Learning

3 Malcolm Shepherd Knowles (1913 - 1997)

4 Road Map What is SDL? Why we should be self-directed learner ? 12 Tips for SDL Conclusion

5 Introduction Continuing process We know how to be taught; we haven’t learn how to learn Most learning is informal and self- directed in nature

6 Think, Pair & Share What is learning??

7 Learning: A continuing process resulting in some modification, relatively permanent, of the way of thinking, feeling, doing, of the learners The process of acquisition of new knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, behaviours, preferences, & understanding…..

8 Learning means making use of every resource in or out of educational institutions for our personal growth and development

9 What is SDL?

10 Is the process for which the individual learner takes the initiative and the responsibility (with or without help) to: assess educational needs, set goals and objectives, plan and identify appropriate educational activities, implement those activities, and evaluate the outcomes.

11 Goal and objectives A goal or objective is defined as: an end toward which an effort is directed. Goal - broad educational objective, Objective – specific measurable objective.

12 Goals and objectives are important because they do the following: o Help direct the choice of curricular content o Suggest what learning methods will be most effective o Enable evaluation of learners and the curriculum o Suggest what evaluation methods are appropriate o Clearly communicate to others what the curriculum addresses and hopes to achieve.

13 Four Essential Issues? Educational needs, Goals & objectives, Appropriate educational activities, implementation, Evaluation of the outcomes. Could you give me an example??

14 Why SDL?

15 Psychological development SDL is more in tune with our natural process of psychological development When we are born we are totally dependent As we grow and mature we develop the need for independence

16 Match the new movement in adult education Pedagogy VS andragogy Students centered PBL Curricula Computer-based education So, prepare learners

17 Andragogy is the antonym of pedagogy. In pedagogy, the concern is with transmitting the content, while in andragogy, the concern is with facilitating the acquisition of the content. Andragogy is a theory developed by Knowles (1913-97) which differentiates the needs of adult learners from those of juveniles and uses the term andragogy to describe the specific methods which should be employed in the education of adults.

18 The adult learner moves towards independence and is self-directing. The teacher encourages and nurtures this movement. The learner's experience is a rich resource for learning. Hence teaching methods include discussion, problem-solving etc. People learn what they need to know, so that learning programs are organized around life application. Learning experiences should be based around experiences, since people are performance centered in their learning.

19 Life long learning Skills We must learn from everything we do We must exploit every experience as a “learning experience” Every institution in the community becomes a resource for learning

20 Andragogy requires that adult learners be involved in the identification of their learning needs and the planning of how those needs are satisfied. Learning should be an active rather than a passive process. Adult learning is most effective when concerned with solving problems that have relevance to the learner's everyday experience.

21 When SDL becomes more powerful? When we decide: 1. What areas of knowledge and skills we need to gain in order to get something done (our learning needs and goals) 2. How we will gain the areas of knowledge and skills (our learning objectives and activities) 3. How we will know that we've gained the areas of knowledge and skills (learning evaluation)

22 Twelve Tips for Effective SDL

23 1. Identify your learning needs Your self Your patients Your peers / colleagues Your students Your teachers Others; e.g. family members

24 2. Translate learning needs into learning objectives Specific Feasible At appropriate level of specificity or generality Personally meaningful Measurable as to accomplishment

25 SMART Objectives S pecific M easurable A ppropriate R easonable T imely

26 3. Identify educational resources: Be able to identify human & material resources appropriate to different kinds of learning objectives

27 4. Organize learning activities Be able to select effective strategies for making use of learning resources & to perform these strategies skillfully & with initiative

28 5. Set a doable and practical plan Don’t be idealistic; try first, with feasible learning activity Time schedule

29 6. Set a learning contract Learning objectives Learning resources & strategies Evidence of accomplishment Criteria & means of validating evidence

30 7. Make use of electronic resources Don’t be the last one…learn how to use it effectively Be selective Time management

31 8. Maintain high motivation Internal factors External factors Incentives

32 9. Be skillful time manager First things first Prioratize Learn & practice

33 Priority Table Urgent Not urgent Important √ Not important √

34 10. Be skillful critical reader Select appropriate; 1. reading materials, 2. time & 3. place Scan the contents Scan the summary Be critical reader Highlights &/or take notes Self-assessment

35 11. Self-assessment Written test / practical exam Peer discussion Discussion with tutor or resource person practice

36 12. Evaluate educational process The whole process You may ask for external evaluator

37 Essential References: htm



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