Presentation on theme: "- Industrialization & Economic Development -"— Presentation transcript:
1 - Industrialization & Economic Development - The Industrial RevolutionIndustry DistributionNorthwestern EuropeEastern EuropeEast AsiaEastern North AmericaDistribution factorsChanges since the industrial revolutionExpanding industry
2 Industrial Revolution A series of inventions that brought new uses to known energy sources, new machines to improve efficiencies and enable other new inventions.e.g. steam engine, iron smelting, water pump, and more.
3 Beginning of Industrial Revolution When and where did the industrial revolution begin?In Great Britain in the mid to late 1700sWhy Great Britain?Flow of capital ($$$)Mercantilism (What is it? Well, see next 2 slides…)Resources: coal, and water power
4 What is mercantilism? (1/2) A 1700s, European, economic theory, that says that the prosperity of a country depends on:1. its supply of capital (available $)2. international trade being "unchangeable“3. one party (gvt, elite, businessmen) may/will benefit at the expense of another.4/20/2017
5 What is mercantilism? (2/2) 4. increasing a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests .5. In commerce: transactions (sales and purchases) having the objective of supplying commodities (goods and services).4/20/2017
6 Diffusion to Mainland Europe Early 1800s, innovations diffused into mainland Europe.Location criteria: 1. proximity to coal fields2. connection via water to a port3. flow of capitalLater DiffusionLate 1800s, innovations diffused to some regionswithout coal.Location criteria: 1. access to RRs2. flow of capital
7 Where is industry distributed? Less than 1 % of the Earth’s land is devoted to industry (25% to agriculture)¾ of industrial production is concentrated in four regions:Northwestern EuropeEastern EuropeEastern North AmericaEast Asia
8 Home of the Industrial Revolution Western Europe 1. The UKHome of the Industrial Revolution4/20/2017
9 Western Europe 2. Rhine-Rhur Valley and Mid-Rhine First place industrial revolution diffused toProximity to large coal fields, access to iron and steelAcess to major rivers (Rhine and Rhur)Mid-RhineCenter of Europe's most important consumer market
10 Western Europe 3.Northern Italy Large number of workers willing to work cheapInexpensive hydroelectricity from the Alps
11 Eastern Europe’s Districts Moscow Districtaccess to large marketsSt. Petersburg Districtproximity to Baltic SeaVolga Districtlarge petroleum and natural gas fields close to riversUral DistrictMinerals in the Ural mountains
13 North America (1/2) New England Historically populated Abundant, cheap immigrant laborMiddle AtlanticLargest Market (close to New York)Main portsMohawk Valley (NY)Inexpensive abundant hydroelectricity (Niagara Falls)4/20/2017
14 North America (2/2) Pittsburgh-Lake Erie Coal and Iron in the AppalachiansSteel production attracted more industryWestern Great LakesAutomobilesTransportationSt. Lawrence ValleyClose to Canadian MarketsClose to Niagara FallsClose to Great Lakes4/20/2017
15 East Asia Isolated from world markets Access to ports Large labor force working for cheapGrew based on production of cheap exports4/20/2017
16 The distribution of Industry Situation factorProximity to marketsSite Factors (see next slides)LaborLandCapital
17 Site Factors: Land Climate Topography Recreational opportunities Cultural facilitiesCost of livingCost of land
18 Site Factors: Capital ($$$) Which institutions will lend the money and where are they located?
19 How has Industry changed since the industrial revolution? Henry Ford and the assembly line: dominant mode of mass production during the 20th century, production of consumer goods at a single site.
20 Post-Fordist More flexible set of production practices Post-Fordist: Current mode of productionMore flexible set of production practicesProduction is accelerated and dispersed by multinational companies that shift production, outsourcing it around the world.
21 Time-Space Compression (1/2) Through improvements in transportation andcommunication technologies, many places inthe world are more connected than everbefore.
22 Time-Space Compression (2/2) Just-in-time deliveryRather than keeping a large inventory of components or products, companies keep just what they need for short-term production and new parts are shipped quickly when needed.Global division of laborCorporations can draw from labor around the globe for different components of production.
23 Where is industry expanding? Southern and Western U.S.Lack of unionsCheap laborOpening of western portsFrom Cities to SuburbsCheap landFactory layout4/20/2017
24 Outsizing Contracting out of a business function – previously performed in one area - to another geographic area(within/outside of a country).A business “outsource” to suppliers outside the nation,sometimes referred to as off shoring.Example: problems with Internet provider?4/20/2017