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The “Just Society” A Blueprint for a Better Tomorrow.

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1 The “Just Society” A Blueprint for a Better Tomorrow

2 Taking a Stand On June 10, 1968, Pierre Elliot Trudeau gave a speech that defined his vision for Canada: that Canada would become a “Just Society” – one in which there would be equal opportunity and social justice for all. For many Canadians this was a goal towards which they spent the next four decades striving towards

3 "I've always dreamt of a society where each person should be able to fulfill himself to the extent of his capabilities as a human being, a society where inhibitions to equality would be eradicated. This means providing individual freedoms, and equality of opportunity, health, and education, and I conceive of politics as a series of decisions to create this society." /foundation_gr6/blms/6-4-4a.pdf

4 Women`s Rights in Canada You go, girl!

5 Status of Women by 1950 Positives for Women Considered legal “persons” with rights and protections had the right to vote in all elections and to be elected/appointed to any political/judicial position More women were in the workforce than ever before (impact of WWII) Could now become doctors, lawyers, engineers, etc. Negatives for Women Many laws were not applied equally to both genders and favoured men Discrimination was widespread and legal (especially in the workplace) Women made less $ than men, even for the same job Universities discriminated when accepting women students (they had to have higher marks) Only 67 women had ever been elected to any Canadian political office (compared to 6778 men)



8 Changes That Need To Be Made… 1967, the Liberal government established a “Royal Commission on the Status of Women” to investigate the plight of women in Canada and make suggestions for improvement They spent 3 years studying the issue and made several key recommendations Recommendations: Outlaw gender-based discrimination by employers Gov’t should fund better daycare for working mothers Paid maternity leave Increased availability of birth control and control over reproductive rights The gov’t should appoint more female judges and senators

9 …Changes That Are Made. The Federal Gov’t enacted a few of the changes by 1977: – Outlawed discrimination based on gender – Required women employed by the gov’t to receive equal pay – Some affirmative action programs are started for women These changes only resulted after protests and pressure from women’s groups

10 The Tipping Point The introduction of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms helped usher in a new era for women`s rights They did not need to wait for laws to be passed, they could now challenge (in court) unfair laws and have them removed Numerous political and legal campaigns had to be waged to bring Canadian law into line with the ideals of equality

11 Welcome to the World of Tomorrow…. (well, the year 2000) Positives for Women Women held high political offices (PM, Supreme Court Judge, Gov. General, etc.) Women held 21% of the seats in the House of Commons Women were 45% of the workforce (43% of all managers) Women had full access to birth control and reproductive rights All laws and policies had to meet the gender-equality standard or be overturned by the courts Laws against sexual harassment have been passed and enforced Negatives for Women Women only held 6% of the top jobs (CEO, board members) in large Canadian companies A wage gap still exists between men and women The glass ceiling still prevents many women from attaining the highest levels of employment

12 Labour Rights in Canada Workers of the world unite; you have nothing to lose but your chains!

13 The Tide Turns… Prior to 1944, workers who wanted to unionize had no legal protection. Employers could fire employees without cause Those who protested could be attacked by `strike breakers` or face legal punishments



16 In 1944, William Lyon Mackenzie King gave workers the right to form unions and collectively bargain for better pay and safer working conditions In 1946, The Rand Formula ensured all workers who benefited from a union`s actions had to pay dues – this gave unions the financial power to wage political campaigns and endure long strikes

17 The Battles Rage…. Once unions were legally protected, thousands of workers banded together for improved employment Unions used strikes and work stoppages to force companies to meet their demands Even the gov`t faced strikes by public-sector employees for better pay and working conditions By 1970, almost 8 000 000 person-days had been lost to these actions

18 The Change…. All public sector employees are now unionized Pay for workers increased due to strikes and labour actions throughout the 60s and 70s Benefits, protections, pensions, and increased workers safety were all products of the unionized labour movement The labour movement has shrunk recently due to out- sourcing, loss of manufacturing jobs, and public/political backlash


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