2 WHAT ARE CELLS?????? Cells are the basic unit of life All living things are made up of cellsEach cell contains small parts called ORGANELLES which have special functions to maintain all life processes such as:a) intake of nutrients e) exchange of gasesb) movement f) waste removalc) growth g) reproductiond) response to stimuliThere are two types of cells: Animal cells and Plant cellsPlant and animal cells have some organelles in common, others vary
4 CytosolCytoplasm refers to the jelly-like material with organelles in it. If the organelles were removed, the soluble part that would be left is called the cytosol. It consists mainly of water with dissolved substances that organelles need to survive
5 NucleusThe nucleus is the control center of the cell. It is the largest organelle in the cell and it contains the DNA of the cell. The DNA of all cells is made up of chromosomes.DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) contains all the information for cells to live, perform their functions and reproduce. Inside the nucleus is another organelle called the nucleolus. The nucleolus is responsible for making ribosomes.
6 Mitochondria Mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell. Convert the energy in food molecules into chemical energy cells can useEvery type of cell has a different amount of mitochondria. There are more mitochondria in cells that have to perform lots of work, for example- your leg muscle cells, heart muscle cells etc. Other cells need less energy to do their work and have less mitochondria.
7 Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)- It is a network of membranes throughout the cytoplasm of the cell. There are two types of ER.When ribosomes are attached it is called rough ER and smooth ER when there are no ribosomes attached. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is where most protein synthesis occurs in the cell. The function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum is to synthesize lipids (fats) in the cell.
8 Golgi complex/apparatus It is organelle in the cell that is responsible for modifying, sorting and correctly packaging the proteins produced in the ER so that they can be delivered to other parts of the cell or outside of the cell.
9 Cell Membrane A protective barrier around the cell Is made of a double layer of lipidsLipids are fat like substance that DO NOT dissolve in waterIt is designed to allow different substances to move through itHow do substances move through the cell membrane?a) Osmosis – water moves from a high concentration toa low concentrationB) Diffusion- When a dissolved substance moves froma high concentration to a low concentration
10 The fluid mosaic modelIn this model the cell membrane is seen as a bilayer of phospholipids (fat molecules) in which protein molecules are embedded.The cell membrane is the gate keeper of the cell. It controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell.
11 VesiclesThis term literally means "small vessel". This organelle helps store and transport products produced by the cell.Some vesicles deliver materials to parts of the cell and others transport materials outside the cell in a process called exocytosis
12 Lysosomes function as the cell's clean up system. digest bacteria or damaged organelles and recycle the proteins and lipids from them for use elsewhere in the cell
13 Cytoskeleton All cells have a cytoskeleton Made of protein filaments Helps keep the cell’s shape
14 Centrioles Within an animal cells only The two centrioles are arranged such that one is perpendicular to the other.During animal cell division, the centrioles are responsible for making the "spindle" which separating replicated (copied) chromosomes.
15 Ciliaare thread-like projections of certain cells that beat in a regular fashion to create currents that sweep materials along
16 Flagellamay extend to the rear of a cell and push it forward by snakelike wriggling, or it may stick out in front and draw a cell along.
18 A rigid frame around the cell that provide strength Only in plant cells
19 ChloroplastThe cell organelle in which photosynthesis takes place. Light energy of the sun is converted into chemical energy. Chloroplasts are found only in plant cells not animal cellsChloroplasts contain tiny pigments called chlorophylls. Chlorophylls are responsible for trapping the light energy from the sun and give plants their green colour.
20 Vacuoles are storage organelles in cells. may store water, waste products, food, and other cellular materials.In plant cells, the vacuole may take up most of the cell's volume.
21 Differences between Animal & Plant cells .FeatureAnimal CellsPlant CellsPhotosynthesisNo chloroplastsChloroplasts capture light energyVacuole SizeSmallLargeCell DivisionHave centrioles to make spindle fibersCell wallsNo cell wallsCell walls are presentLysosomesPresentAre not presentNo centrioles
22 HOMEWORK:p. 16 #1-3, 5Worksheet: Colour the cell parts the appropriate colour and answer the questions