5 Table of ContentsPart A : Definition Definition of Vibration and waves Basic Properties of waves.- Terminology of waves.Part B : Types of Waves and Terminology Mechanical waves : Transverse and Longitudinal waves.Part C : The Wave Equation.Part D : Common Characteristic of WavePart E : RevisionThe basics
6 PART A 10.1 What are waves? page232 Definition A periodic disturbance which travels through a medium from one point in space to the others.ORA wiggle in space and time is a wave.What carries waves?A medium, a medium is the material through which a wave travels.A medium can be a gas, liquid, or solid.
7 What causes waves?Waves are created when a source of energy causes a medium to vibrate.
8 PART A Definition of Vibration A vibration is a repeated back and forth, up and down, from side to side, to and fro, in and out motion in time. ORA wiggle in time.
9 Each term will be explained…. Terminology of a WaveA wave is usually described by the following terms :AmplitudeWavelength ()Frequency (f)Period (T)Wave velocity (v)Each term will be explained….
10 Amplitude(A) Definition: The amplitude is the distance from the midpoint to the crest (or to the trough) of the wave.
11 Wavelength (λ) Definition: The wavelength is the distance from the top of one crest to the top of the next one.ORThe distance between successive identical parts of the wave.The distance from successive crest to crest or trough to troughUnit: meters
12 Frequency(f) Definition: The frequency is the number of to and fro vibrations per second.One vibration per second is 1Hz; two vibrations per second is 2 Hz, and so on.Unit: Hertz (Hz) defined to be one cycle / wave per sec.Higher frequencies are measured in kilohertz(kHz), and still higher frequencies in megahertz(MHz).
13 Time period(T) Definition: The period (T) of a wave or vibration is the is the time it takes for a complete vibration --- for a complete cycle.It is related to frequency byT = 1/ƒUnit : s
15 10.2 Wave Speed page233 PART C v = ƒ Definition: The wave velocity is the displacement traveled by the wave in one second ……....Click to exploreThe speed of periodic wave motion (v) is related to the frequency and wavelength of the waves by --Wave speed = wavelength/ periodWave speed= wavelength x frequencyThe Wave Equationv = ƒ
17 Using the Wave Equation Example : A travelling wave of wavelength 0.6m moves at a speed of 3.0 m/s. What is the period of this wave ?Now you know = 0.6 m, v = 3.0 m/s Can you find the frequency of this wave……By using the waveequation, v = ƒ = ƒ(0.6) i.e ƒ = 5.0 HzClick to see the answerThen the period of this wave is ???Period T = 1/ƒ T = 1/5.0 or 0.2 sTable ofContents
21 Transverse Waves page234Definition: A wave in which the medium vibrates in a direction perpendicular (transverse) to the direction in which the wave travels. (page 249)ExamplesWater waves, pulse in a stretched string.
24 10.3 Longitudinal Waves page 234 A wave in which the medium vibrates in a direction parallel (longitudinal) to the direction in which the wave travels.Sound, or a spring oscillating up and down, etc.Examples
28 10.4 Sound Waves page235Sound is the propagation of vibrations through a material medium--- a solid, a liquid or a gas.Molecules in the air vibrate about some average position creating the compressions and rarefactions.Sound cannot travel in a vacuum (no medium).We call the frequency of sound the pitch.
30 Speed of Sound Depends on the material of the vibrating medium Sound can vibrate water, wood (speaker enclosures, pianos), metal, plastic, etc.Sound speed in dry air is 330 meters/second at 0o CFaster in warm air, slower in coldWater 4 times faster, steel 15 times fasterThe human ear can normally hear pitches from sound ranging from about 20Hz to about 20,000Hz.Sound waves of frequencies lower than 20Hz are called infrasonic waves.Sound waves of frequencies higher than 20,000Hz are called ultrasonic waves.
31 PART E Revision Now you have learned the basic concepts of Waves. After this lecture, you should be able to answer the following questions :Click here to go back to table of contents -->Are you ready ?Next pageEnd the slide show
32 1. What is the difference between mechanical and electromagnetic waves ? 2. Can you give some examples of electromagnetic waves ?3. What is the direction of the particle motion in a transverse wave ?More questions4. Is sound a transverse or longitudinal wave ?5. Is it correct that water waves do not transmit energy from one point to another ?If you do not have all 5 questions answered correctly, click here and back to part B again if necessary ---->>
33 If you miss any of this questions, go back to the lesson 1. In a wave diagram, can you identify the following terms ? (a) wavelength (b) amplitude.2. Write down the wave equation.If you miss anyof this questions,go back to the lessonby clicking thisbutton -->>
34 Waves mechanical Electromagnetic Waves Now we come to the conclusion of introducing waves.You should be able to tell the nature of waves, and identifydifferent types of waves after this lecture.mechanicalWavesElectromagneticWavesThe study of waves is important in Physics. From the motion of water to the structure of atoms, study of waves applies almost in every category.THE END OF LECTURE
35 PART B TYPES OF WAVES Waves are classified into different types according to their natures :
36 1. Mechanical WavesA material medium is necessary for the transmission for mechanical waves. Mechanical waves cannot travel through vacuum.Water waves,SoundClick forexamplesVibration of spring