2 ONE-CHILD CHINA GROWS UP 2CHAPTER 4 HUMAN POPULATIONSONE-CHILD CHINA GROWS UPA country faces the outcomes of radical population control
3 The growth rate of a population is the percent increase of population size over time.
4 4The growth rate is affected by births, deaths, and the number of people moving into or out of a regional population.
5 Global human population has had two growth spurts: 5Global human population has had two growth spurts:Agricultural revolution, 10,000 years agoIndustrial Revolution, 1700s
6 China’s standard of living improved greatly in the second half of the 20th Century. Life expectancy increased from 45 to 60 years old.
7 China’s crude death rate fell, but its crude birth rate held steady China’s crude death rate fell, but its crude birth rate held steady. By 1970, China’s population had swelled to nearly 900 million.
8 Other developed nations have gone through this demographic transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates.
9 China supports a quarter of the world’s population on just 7 percent of the planet’s arable land (fit for growing crops).
10 In the 1950s, famine claimed 30million lives in China. In the 1970s, shortages in consumer goods led to rationing. The government blamedoverpopulation.
11 In the 1970s, China feared more growth: Two-thirds of the population was under the age of 30Those born in 1950s, 1960s were entering their reproductive years
12 In 1979, China issued a decree: No family could have more than one child.
13 Explain the differences between these age structure diagrams 3/27/12
14 China’s goal (shared by many countries): zero population growth.
15 1515This occurs when the number of people born equals the number of people dying; in other words, replacement fertility rate is reached.
16 Reaching zero population growth takes two steps: Identifying why birth rates are highTaking steps to reduce them
17 Demographers use age structure diagrams to predict the future growth potential of a population.
18 Age structure diagrams show: Age structure: percentage ofpopulation in various age groupsSex ratio: number of males per1,000 females.
19 Clicker Question Answer: C (diagram from Chapter 4 clicker questions) 1919Answer: C (diagram from Chapter 4 clicker questions)Clicker QuestionBased on the age structure diagrams above, which country has the highest capacity for growth and will experience the highest growth rate?A. Country AB. Country BC. Country CD. Countries A & B
20 Clicker Question Answer: B 2020Answer: BClicker QuestionWhich country would you classify as mature and most likely to experience stable population growth?A. Country AB. Country BC. Country CD. Countries A & B
21 Many industrialized nations have top-heavy age structure diagrams with many older people (the United States, for example)
22 These countries struggle to care for rapidly aging populations: U.S. baby boomers’ retirement fuels debates on Social SecurityFrance raised retirement age from 60 to 62
23 Do NowWith the world population now over 7 billion people, and scheduled to reach 8 billion in 2023, what can be done to stop or slow the growth rate? What is being done now if anything?3/27/12
24 China’s age structure diagram has changed since the one-child policy: In 1982, 5% older than 65By 2050, 15% projected to be older than 65
25 China’s sex ratio of males to females also changed: In 1979, the ratio was 1.06In 2011, the ratio was 1.17By 2020, it is estimated that there will be 30 million more men than women in China.
26 New problems for China: Fewer adult children to care for aging relativesFewer young workersFewer women for men to marry
27 In 2011, China began considering allowing select couples to have a second child.
28 Worldwide, population growth rates are declining, but the overall number is still positive, so world population is still growing.
29 Every environment has a carrying capacity – the maximum population size the area can support.
30 There are roughly 7 billion people on the planet today There are roughly 7 billion people on the planet today. We may have already exceeded Earth’s carrying capacity.
31 One problem we face is our dependence on nonrenewable 3131One problem we face is ourdependence on nonrenewableenergy sources: they will notlast indefinitely.
32 Whether we stabilize at 9 or 10 billion or more depends on how quickly we lower total fertility rates (TFR) worldwide.
33 Many demographers believe addressing social justice issues of overpopulation will help countries with high TFRs confront what lies ahead.