2 INSTRUCTOR Mr. Joe MacDougall Diploma in Aviation Mount Royal College/University (Calgary, AB)Bachelors of Science in Aeronautics from the University of North DakotaSt. Louis University/Parks CollegeOwner AvCanadaWeather Modification PilotCanadian Airline TransportFAA Commercial Multi-Instrument & SES, CFI, CFII, MEIBBCC Assistant Chief Flight Instructor
3 MOST CHALLENGING CROSS COUNTRY CYYC-SAME (MENDOZE ARGENTINA MDZ)Via Fargo ND (KFAR), Albany Georgia (KABY), St. Petersburg Florida (KSPG), Lakeland Florida (KLAL), Fort Pierce Florida (KFPR), then over Cuba to Montego Bay Jamaica (MBJ MKJS), Bogotá Columbia (SKBO), Rio Bronco Brazil (SBRB), Cuiaba Brazil (SBCY), Iguazzu Brazil (SBFI), Mendoza Argentina (SAME)
4 Route between CYYC (Calgary, Alberta, Canada) and SAME (Mendoza, Mendoza, Argentina): Distance along great circle: statute miles, nautical miles, kilometers
5 TEXTS You will be using two texts this quarter: Aviation Weather AC 00-6A andAviation Weather Services AC00-45G
6 COURSE OUTLINE AND GRADING POLICY Please read the course outline. In this document you will find the grading policy for this course.
7 Course Objectives: Understanding of basic weather theory Cause and effect relationshipsRecognize critical weather situationsBe able to identify typical weather phenomenonBe able to obtain weather informationPrepared for FAA oral exam for topics relating to meteorology
8 AOPA & Duat/sThroughout the course there will be several homework assignments that you will be required to complete from the AOPA website.You will need to prove to me that you can login to or before January 24th, 2013 if you are in the flight program.Students who are not in the flight program or who have not completed AVF 112 please raise your hand.
9 Introduction Why study the Weather? It effects everyoneYour knowledge may save your life at one point or another in your aviation careerGo-No go decision (most important thing you can learn)After your airborne it’s a terrible feeling wishing that you were on the ground.Therefore it can not be purely academic, we have to relate it to flight safety.For your safety and the safety of those with you, learn to recognize potential trouble and make sound preflight and flight decisions before it is to late. This is the real purpose of the first half of this course.
10 CLASS CONTENTEARTH FACTSReview of METAR’s, TAF’s, FA, FD, PIREPS
11 EARTH What do you think the dimensions of the Earth are? Radius CircumferenceDistance from the Pole to Equator
12 EARTH What do you think the dimensions of the Earth are? Radius = 3,438 n.m.Circumference = 21,625 n.m.Distance from the Pole to Equator = 5,397 n.m.
13 ATMOSHERIC LAYERS99.9% of the total atmospheric mass is below 164,000 ft (about 27 n.m.). At this altitude the density is about one-thousandth of sea levels density. Very close to the top but there is no well-defined upper surface to the atmosphere.90% of mass is below 53,000 ft50% of mass is below 18,000 ft
14 Earth FactsIf the earth were a beach ball the atmosphere would be as thin as a piece of paperIf the Earth was an apple the atmosphere would be similar to the skin of the apple.It took approx. 4.6 Billion years for the atmosphere to form.
15 Meteorological History The term goes back to Greek Philosopher Aristotle 340 BCHe wrote a book called Meteorlogica which was referenced for 2000 years.Thermometer was invented late 1500’sBarometer invented in 1643The 1800’s saw a scientific approach being developed and the use of weather maps introduced
16 Meteorological History 1920’s saw Airmasses and Fronts1940’s Balloon wx observations gave a more 3 dimensional view1950’s computer aided wx1960’s Tiros I wx satellite
17 Meteorological TodayToday, complex computer models tied with satellite data improve accuracyA large part of this data is available from a FSS (1-800-WX-Brief) or on the internetIn the second half of this course and today we are going to cover weather reports, forecasts etc. from AC00-45F
18 METAR HistoryThe METAR format was introduced 1 January internationally and has been modified several times since. North American countries continued to use a Surface Aviation Observation (SAO) for current weather conditions until 1 June 1996 when this report was replaced with an approved variant of the METAR agreed upon in a 1989 Geneva agreement.
19 METAR NamingThe word METAR originated from the French, "message d’observation météorologique régulière pour l’aviation," and is thought to be a contraction from the french words, MÉTéorologique ("Weather") Aviation Régulière ("Routine"). The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) defines a METAR as an aviation routine weather report in the Aeronautical Informational Manual and may therefore consider it erroneous to attempt to redefine METAR with incorrect terminology such as METeorological Aerodrome Report. The FAA and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) specifically define a METAR as an aviation routine weather report, which is an approximate translation of the historical French description.
20 METAR METAR= Aviation Routine Weather Report In 1996 US converted to the ICAO and the World Meterological Organization form of aviation weather reporting.Each country is allowed to make modifications to the code to use in that particular countryIn the U.S. visibility is in statute miles, runway visual range in feet, wind speed in knots, and altimeter setting in inches of mercury
21 METAR Elements of a METAR 1. Type of Report 2. ICAO station identifier 5. Wind6. Visibility7. RVR8. Weather9. Sky conditions10. Temp/DPT11. Altimeter12. RemarksElements of a METAR1. Type of Report2. ICAO station identifier3. Date and time of report4. Modifier (as required)
22 METAR (Section 3 AC 00-45F)METAR KGNV Z COR 24015KT 3/4SM R28/2400FT +TSRA BKN008 OVC015CB 26/25 A2985 RMK TSB32RAB32METAR KPIT Z COR 22015G25KT 3/4SM R28L/2600FT TSRA OVC010CB 18/16 A2992 RMK SLP045 T
23 METAR AND TAFKMWH Z 00000KT 1/2SM R32R/6000VP6000FT UP FG BKN004 OVC /01 A3009 RMK AO2 RAE49UPB49 SLP202 P0007 TKMWH Z 0422/ KT 3SM -RA BR OVC015 TEMPO 0422/0424 1SM RA BR BKN005 OVC030 FM KT 5SM RA BR OVC015 FM VRB04KT P6SM BKN006 OVC010KEPH Z AUTO 01006KT 3SM -SN BR FEW004 BKN021 OVC031 00/00 A3008 RMK AO2 SLP197 P0004 T
24 METAR (226 & 200AFD)METAR’s are issued normally 5-10minutes before the hour every hourCeiling is defined as the lowest broken or overcast layer or vertical visibility into a surface based obstructionIndefinite ceiling VV006Temperature below zero prefixed with a M
25 METAR (226 & 200AFD)A01-Automated station with out precipitation discriminationA02- with precip discriminationVC in vicinity of airport 5-10 SMMETAR’s are reports (a moment of time) not a forecast
26 TAF (AC 00-45F 7.2)Used to be called a FT now called a Terminal Aerodrome ForecastsIs a forecast of the expected weather conditions at an airport during a specific period (usually 24hrs NOW some are 30hrs)Issued four times a day for 24 hrs periods (00Z, 06Z, 12Z, 18Z)
27 TAF Example old format: TAF KOKC Z KT 5SM BR BKN030 WS018/32030KT TEMPO /2SM BR FM KT P6SM SKC BECMG G20KT 4SM SHRA OVC020 PROB SM TSRA OVC008CB =
29 TAF NEW FORMATKMWH Z 0204/ KT P6SM OVC110 FM KT 5SM -RA BR BKN008 FM KT 2SM -RASN BR OVC007 FM KT 1SM BR BKN007 OVC025 FM G22KT P6SM SCT020 BKN150 =KMWH Z 0422/ KT 3SM - RA BR OVC015 TEMPO 0422/0424 1SM RA BR BKN005 OVC030 FM KT 5SM RA BR OVC015 FM VRB04KT P6SM BKN006 OVC010
30 TAF (DECEMBER 2ND 2009) Example SPOKANE: KGEG Z 0204/ KT 6SM - SN BR BKN005 OVC010 FM KT 3/4SM -RASN BR BKN009 OVC015 FM KT 3SM -SHSN SCT008 BKN015 FM G25KT P6SM VCSH SCT020 BKN150 FM NSW SKC =
31 FA AVIATION AREA FORECAST (Section 7) FA is a forecast of general weather conditions over an area the size of several states.It is used to determine forecast en route weather and to interpolate conditions at airports that do not have TAF’s issued.FA’s are issued 3 times a day for 6 different areas in the U.S.
32 FA AVIATION AREA FORECAST (269) FA is comprised of four sections:1 Communication and product header section2. A precautionary statement section3. Synopsis section4. VFR Clouds/WX section
33 FA AVIATION AREA FORECAST The area we are in is the SFO San Francisco area1. Communication and Product headerIdentifies the office for which the FA is issued, the date and time of issue, the product name, the valid times, and the states and/or areas covered by the FA2. Precautionary statements. Three statements are in all FA’s
34 FA AVIATION AREA FORECAST (269) See airmet sierra for IFR conds and mtn obscn.TSTMS IMPLY PSPL SVR OR GTR TURBC SVR ICG LLWS AND IFR CONDS.NON MSL HGTS ARE NENOTED BY AGL OR CIG.
35 FA AVIATION AREA FORECAST Synopsis - brief summary of the location and movement of fronts, pressure systems, and circulation patterns for an 18-hr. periodVFR Clouds and Weather - contains a 12 hr. specific forecast, followed by a 6 -hr outlook giving a total forecast of 18hr(duat)
36 In-Flight WX advisories Are forecasts that advise en route aircraft of the development of potentially hazardous weatherThree different kinds of in-flight wx advisories1. Convective SIGMET (WST)2. SIGMET (WS)3. AIRMET (WA)
37 In-Flight WX advisories All heights are MSL unless stated CIGConvective SIGMET (WST) - Are issued for any of the followingA severe thunderstorm due to 1. Surface winds greater than or equal to 50kt, 2. Hail at the surface greater than or equal to 3/4 in. in diameter, 3. Tornadoes, 4. Embedded thunderstorms, 5. Line of thunderstorms, or 6. TS greater or = to VIP intensity level 4 affecting 40% or more of an area 3000 square miles.
38 In-Flight WX advisories Convective SIGMET (WST) - implies severe or greater turbulence, severe icing, and low-level wind shearIssued for eastern (E), central (C), and western (W) United States.Bulletins are issued hourly at H+55Each new bulletin is identified with a numberThe text of the bulletin’s forecast is valid for up to 2 hours. (Pg 281)
39 In-Flight WX advisories SIGMET (WS)- advises of nonconvective weather that is potentially hazardous to all aircraft1. Severe icing, 2. Severe or extreme turbulence or clear air turbulence not associated with a TS3. Dustorms, sandstorms, or volcanic ash lowering surface visibilities to below 3SM4. Volcanic eruptionThe maximum forecast period is 6 hrs.
40 In-Flight WX advisories Identified by alphabetic designators which inlude November through Yankee but exlude Sierra and TangoFirst issuance of a SIGMET with be labeled UWS (urgent weather SIGMET)
41 In-Flight WX advisories ExampleUWSSIGMET PAPA 1 VALID UNTILAR LA MSFROM STL TO 30N MEI TO BTW TO MLU TO STL OCNL SVR ICING 90 TO 130 EXPCE.FRZLVL 80 E TO 120 W. CONDS CONTG BYD 2100Z
42 In-Flight WX advisories AIRMET (WA)- are advisories of significant weather phenomena but describe conditions at intensities lower than those which trigger SIGMETs.Are bulletins issued on a scheduled basis every 6 hrs. Issued for: moderate icing, Moderate turbulence, sustained surface winds of 30 kt. Or more, IFR clouds and visibilites affecting over 50% of the area at one time, extensive mountain obscurement
43 In-Flight WX advisories AIRMET - have fixed alphanumeric designators of:ZULU for moderate icing & Freezing LevelTANGO for moderate turbulence, LLWS, strong windsSIERRA for IFR and mountain obscurationPg 284 example
44 WINDS ALOFT FORECAST FD/FB Forecasts are made twice a day based on 00Z and 12Z data for use during specific time intervalsCan be both an observation or a forecast.Valid for a specific timeGives winds at 3000ft, 6000ft, 9000ft, 12,000ft, 18,000ft, 24,000ft, 30,000ft, 34,000ft etc.example winds and temperature at 9,000ft are written as= winds 270 degrees true and 25 knots temperature 0 degrees C
45 WINDS ALOFT FORECAST FD No winds are forecast within 1500ft of station elevation, also no temperature are forecast for the 3,000ft level or for any level within 2,500 ft of station elevation. Above no negative CIf wind speed is over 100 knots (or from knots) the wind speed will have 50 added to the directionExample wind 230 degrees T at 150 knots =7350Wind less than 5 kt codedas 9900 light and variable
46 PIREPS UAPIREPS (UA) - observations from pilots in the cockpit. Provide the only means of directly observing cloud tops, icing, and turbulence.Transmitted in a prescribed format
48 PIREPS UAThe letter “UUA” identify an urgent PIREPExampleSEA UA /OV SEA105045/TM 0245/FL170/TP B738/TB MOD /RM DURGDSFF UA /OV SFF /TM 0336 /FL050 /TP BE20 /TA M04 /IC MOD RIME
49 WX 1/5/2003KMWH Z 02005KT 10SM OVC009 05/03 A3057 RMK AO2 SLP363 T $KPSC Z AUTO 00000KT 10SM CLR 11/03 A3056 RMK AO2 SLP351 TKGEG Z 16003KT 10SM FEW012 BKN017 OVC /01 A3054 RMK AO2 SLP358 TKEAT Z AUTO 07005KT 3SM BR OVC001 01/00 A3057 RMK AO2KELN Z AUTO 00000KT 10SM CLR 01/M01 A3052 RMK AO2 SLP351 TKSEA Z 36003KT 10SM SCT130 BKN150 10/06 A3045 RMK AO2 SLP313 T
50 1/5/2004METAR KMWH Z 36010KT 10SM CLR M14/M19 A3073 RMK AO2 SLP442 TMETAR KEPH Z AUTO 36006KT 10SM CLR M13/M20 A3071 RMK AO2 SLP438 T $
51 NOTAMS MWH 01/022 MWH RWY 36 BOW MU 27/25/28 WEF 0901050405 BOW = Bowmonk Decelerometer (Bowmonk Sales)MU = Prononced “Mew”, MU is a measurement of runway friction as reported by airport managament.
52 NOTAM !MWH 01/041 MWH RWY 36 BOW MU 43/32/39 WEF 1001042022 1ST THIRD VALUE 272ND THIRD 25LAST 3RD 28Went in effect 09 = 200901 = 1st month05= 5th day0405 = 0405zory_circulars/media/ D/150_5200_28d.pdf