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Presentation on theme: "Introduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction

2 Formation of Earth The Nebular Hypothesis
bodies in our solar system evolved from an enormous rotating cloud called the solar nebula. mostly hydrogen and helium, with some heavier elements.

3 Differentiation As Earth cooled, layers formed through a process called differentiation. Denser elements (iron and nickel) sunk to Earth’s core. Lighter material migrated outward forming the mantle and crust.

4 Earth’s Four Spheres Solid Earth (Lithosphere) Hydrosphere Atmosphere

5 Solid Earth Core mostly iron and nickel densest part of Earth
inner core solid Mantle mostly iron and magnesium liquid Crust mostly silicon and oxygen rigid outer layer

6 Earth’s Crust The earth’s crust is divided into: Continental crust
Oceanic crust

7 Hydrosphere Ocean (the most prominent feature of the hydrosphere)
a. Nearly 71% of Earth’s surface b. About 97% of the earth’s water Fresh water a. glaciers b. rivers and lakes c. groundwater

8 Atmosphere Gaseous envelope surrounding Earth a. life-giving gases
b. protects organisms from intense heat and radiation from the sun

9 Biosphere Includes all life Influences the other three spheres

10 Course Overview Lithosphere- Geology Water- Oceanography
Atmosphere- Meteorology Space- Astronomy

11 Branches of Geology Paleontology

12 Branches of Geology Volcanology

13 Branches of Geology Glaciology

14 Branches of Geology Seismology

15 Branches of Geology Mineralogy

16 Branches of Geology Sedimentology

17 Branches of Geology Structural Geology

18 Branches of Geology Planetary Geology

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