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The Internal Components of a Personal Computer (PC)

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1 The Internal Components of a Personal Computer (PC)
Unit 2 - Hardware The Internal Components of a Personal Computer (PC)

2 HARDWARE Hardware refers to the physical components that make up a computer system Five categories of hardware: Central Processing Unit (CPU) Input Devices (e.g., mouse) Output Devices (e.g., monitor) Assignment: Bristol Board → Groups of 6, each group does a collage on 1 of the 5 components of hardware. All will find information, 3 will present the information in interesting way (5 minutes min, 10 minutes max), 3 will type out information in POINT FORM to submit to the rest of the class Info required: general information, what the hardware is used for, history, example (picture if possible) of historical hardware, person who invented, if possible, present hardware. INPUT DEVICES – must cover mouse, keyboard, scanner + 2 other CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT – must cover mother board, the 3 functions of microprocessor, bus, expansion slots, plug in cards RAM – function of RAM, historical RAM, current RAM OUTPUT DEVICES – must cover monitor, printer, + 2 other. Monitor must cover CRT, LCD STORAGE – must cover floppy disk (old and new), CD, hard disk. Must cover repetition per minute Primary Memory (e.g., RAM, ROM) Secondary Memory (e.g., hard drive, USB drive)

3 Hardware Input devices refer to equipment that puts data into a form a computer can process Examples: keyboard, mouse, webcam, etc. Output devices refer to equipment that translates processed information from the CPU into a form that can be understood by a human. Examples: monitor (screen), sound (speakers) CPU is a unit that reads and executes computer program instructions

4 Hardware Primary memory refers to memory where the data and programs that are in use at the time are stored. As programmers, this memory holds the values of our variables. Primary memory can be directly accessed by the CPU in order to perform operations. Examples: RAM, cache memory, etc. Secondary memory refers to memory where a user stores data and programs for as long as desired. Examples: Hard drive, CDs/DVDs, USB sticks, etc.

5 INTERNAL COMPONENTS Major internal components of a PC Motherboard
Central Processing Unit (CPU) Memory (RAM and ROM) Hard drive Expansion Slots Power supply unit

6 Inside the Computer Chassis

7 Inside the Computer Chassis

8 CPU (Central Processing Unit)
The CPU can be referred to as the brain of the PC. ALL instructions are sent to the CPU using a specific and complex set of codes. The CPU performs calculations and makes decisions for other components.

9 CPU (Central Processing Unit)
Although the instructions performed by the CPU are relatively simple, the CPU can execute many millions of instructions every second. This is what makes the PC such a powerful tool.

10 MOTHERBOARD The motherboard holds the CPU, memory chips (RAM and ROM), expansion slots, power connectors and any other microchips required for the PC to function. Think of it as the central nervous system of the computer: everything plugs into it and it regulates communication between components. Better components require better motherboards!


12 Motherboards in Other Devices

13 MEMORY There are two distinct types of memory within every PC:
ROM - Read Only Memory RAM - Random Access Memory

14 ROM (Read Only Memory) ROM is a special type of memory that stores information that has been programmed into the PC during construction. The PC user cannot change this information. For example, ROM contains the information that is used when the PC is turned on or reset (loading the BIOS – Basic Input/Output System).

15 RAM - Random Access Memory
RAM contains data that is currently in use by programs running on the computer When a program is finished with some data, it may not be lost right away, but it will be replaced if another program needs the space. Space in RAM is limited, so programs need to avoid using too much of it. Data in RAM is lost when the power to the computer is turned off.

16 HARD DRIVE If data held in RAM is to be kept permanently, it should be saved to the hard drive. Much slower than RAM, so not good for immediate use by CPU. Data persists even if the power is disconnected!

17 Ribbon Cable A flat, thin cable containing many parallel wires through which data is transmitted between parts of a computer. e.g. it is used to connect disk drivers and disk driver controllers. An example of a bus -- an electronic line that transfers data from one place to another place in a computer.

18 EXPANSION SLOTS Expansion slots allow a PC to grow. They can be used to add new devices such as sound cards, video cards, or network cards. Expansion slots are high- performance links between the CPU and the expansion cards (rather than cables).

19 VIDEO CARD The video card is responsible for displaying images on to the monitor. Made for PCI, AGP, or PCI-express expansion slots. Fastest: PCI-express You can also run more than one video card (if your motherboard allows it) for gaming purposes. Like having two brains!

20 VIDEO CARD The video card receives image
data from the CPU and stores the information in Video RAM (VRAM). A special video chip then scans this data and converts it to a digital image. This digital image is then converted to data that can be displayed using the monitor.

21 POWER SUPPLY The power supply is responsible for converting the incoming AC power from your plug to the 5v and 12v DC power that is required by the PC.

22 POWER SUPPLY The 5v supply is used to power the circuit boards on the PC. The 12v supply is used to power motor-driven devices such as hard drives or CD-ROMs.

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