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Properties of Logarithms

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The Product Rule Let b, M, and N be positive real numbers with b 1. log b (MN) = log b M + log b N The logarithm of a product is the sum of the logarithms. For example, we can use the product rule to expand ln (4x): ln (4x) = ln 4 + ln x.

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The Quotient Rule Let b, M and N be positive real numbers with b 1. The logarithm of a quotient is the difference of the logarithms.

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The Power Rule Let b, M, and N be positive real numbers with b = 1, and let p be any real number. log b M p = p log b M The logarithm of a number with an exponent is the product of the exponent and the logarithm of that number.

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Text Example Write as a single logarithm: a. log 4 2 + log 4 32 Solution a. log 4 2 + log 4 32 = log 4 (2 32) Use the product rule. = log 4 64 = 3 Although we have a single logarithm, we can simplify since 4 3 = 64.

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Properties for Expanding Logarithmic Expressions For M > 0 and N > 0:

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Example Use logarithmic properties to expand the expression as much as possible.

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Example cont.

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Properties for Condensing Logarithmic Expressions For M > 0 and N > 0:

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The Change-of-Base Property For any logarithmic bases a and b, and any positive number M, The logarithm of M with base b is equal to the logarithm of M with any new base divided by the logarithm of b with that new base.

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Use logarithms to evaluate log 3 7. Solution: or so Example

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Properties of Logarithms

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