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Ms. Napolitano & Mrs. Haas CP Biology

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1 Ms. Napolitano & Mrs. Haas CP Biology
The Cell Membrane Ms. Napolitano & Mrs. Haas CP Biology

2 The Cell Membrane Thin, flexible barrier that surrounds the cell
AKA plasma membrane Selectively permeable – allows some substances to cross more easily than others Usually ~8nm thick

3 The Phospholipid Bilayer

4 Fluid Mosaic Model Used to describe the structure of the membrane
Fluid structure of phospholipids with a mosaic of various proteins embedded in it Cholesterol helps maintain fluidity Membrane becomes less fluid as temperature increases by restricting movement Membrane becomes more fluid as temperature decreases by maintaining space

5 Structure of the Membrane

6 Membrane Proteins Different types of cells contain different types of membrane proteins Integral proteins – embedded into the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer May or may not go all the way through the membrane Peripheral proteins – on the bilayer surface Integral Peripheral

7 Types of Membrane Proteins (1 of 2)
Transport Channel or carrier proteins (hydrophilic tunnels) allow polar molecules and ions to pass through the hydrophobic layer Proteins are specific for the substance they transport Enzymatic Signal Transduction (chemical messages) Receptor proteins transmit information from outside of the cell to inside of the cell

8 Types of Membrane Proteins (2 of 2)
4. Recognition ID tags – glycolipids or glycoproteins 5. Intercellular Joining Join together adjacent cells 6. Support Attach to cytoskeleton or extracellular matrix for stability

9 The phospholipid bilayer is __________ in the middle and __________ on the outsides.
Hydrophobic, hydrophilic Hydrophilic, hydrophobic Hydrophobic, hydrophobic Hydrophilic, hydrophilic

10 What is the function of cholesterol in the cell membrane?
Identification Transport Membrane fluidity Recognition

11 The picture shows a peripheral protein.
True False

12 Which of the following is NOT a function of membrane proteins?
Signal transduction Identification Transport Support

13 Passive Transport Passive Transport – the movement across the cell membrane that does not require energy Types: Diffusion Osmosis Facilitated Diffusion

14 Diffusion Diffusion – the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until an equilibrium is reached Transports small, nonpolar molecules such as CO2 and O2 Concentration Gradient – the difference in the concentration of a substance across a space Equilibrium – concentration of a substance is equal throughout a space

15 Osmosis Osmosis – diffusion of free water across a selectively permeable membrane Water diffuses across the cell membrane from the region of low solute concentration to that of a higher solute concentration until it reaches equilibrium

16 Which way will water flow?
U-Tube (not YouTube!) Which way will water flow?

17 U-Tube (not YouTube!) This way!

18 Osmoregulation in Cells Without Cell Walls
Osmoregulation: control of water balance Tonicity: the ability of a solution to cause a cell to gain/lose water Isotonic solution: no net movement of water across the cell membrane Hypertonic solution: more free water inside the cell (cells lose water & shrivel) Hypotonic solution: less free water inside the cell (cells gain water & lyse) Some cells have a contractile vacuole to pump water out of the cell


20 Osmoregulation of Cells With Cell Walls
Plant cells are healthiest in a hypotonic solution Osmotic pressure keeps cell walls turgid (very firm) Plant cells are flaccid (limp) in an isotonic solution In a hypertonic solution, the cell membrane will shrink and pull away from the cell wall AKA plasmolysis (wilting)


22 Facilitated Diffusion
Facilitated Diffusion: passive transport aided by proteins Molecules travel from high  low concentration Transports small, polar molecules Glucose Salts Ions Amino Acids Water (aquaporins)

23 Channel Proteins Hydrophilic passageways
Some are always open for diffusion Rate of movement is determined by the concentration gradient Some ion channels have gates that can be opened by: Cell membrane stretching Change in electrical charge Binding of specific molecules

24 Carrier Proteins Specific substance binds to carrier protein
Protein changes shape & transports substances across the cell membrane Molecule is released into the cell, and carrier protein returns to its original shape

25 Active Transport Uses energy to move solutes AGAINST the concentration gradient Carrier proteins act as “pumps” powered by ATP Examples: Sodium Potassium Pump Proton Pump Cotransport

26 Sodium Potassium Pump Pumps 3 Na+ out of the cell and 2 K+ into the cell Actively transports both ions against their concentration gradient Powered by ATP


28 Proton Pump Actively transport protons (H+) through the internal membranes of mitochondria & chloroplasts

29 Cotransport (Coupled Transport)
Cotransport: The transport of one solute indirectly drives the transport of several other solutes (using ATP) Example: As proton pump pumps H+ out, H+ ions diffuse back in pulling sucrose with it

30 Bulk Transport Substances that are too large to be transported by carrier proteins Example: proteins leaving/entering the cell Uses vesicles Types: Exocytosis Endocytosis

31 Exocytosis Exo = Export (recall exo means outside!!)
Vesicles fuse with the cell membrane, releasing the contents outside of the cell

32 Endocytosis Recall endo means inside!! Cell membrane engulfs particles
Pinches off to form vesicles inside of the cell

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