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Presentation on theme: "Fracking COLE HESS CBE 555 PROFESSOR: THATCHER ROOT 1."— Presentation transcript:


2 Outline o Survey & Introduction to Fracking o Fracking Fluid o Environmental Impacts o Natural Gas/Benefits o Regulations o Summary o Questions 2

3 Public View of Fracking OpposedSupported Egalitarian World Views Conservative Older Generations Female Gender Education 3 20%22% 58% =?

4 Public View of Fracking OpposedSupported Egalitarian World ViewsX ConservativeX Older GenerationsX Female GenderX EducationX 4

5 What is Fracking? Hydraulic Fracturing: Process of extracting Natural gas from shale formations by using a pressurized drilling technique 1)Inject fracking fluid into horizontal well to fracture rock 2)Extract the natural gas released from the formation 3)Dispose or treat the produced water that was used 5

6 Fracking Fluid AdditivesChemical compositionPurpose% WaterH2OMain carrier (base carrier fluid)90.8 Sand Water and crystalline silica (quartz)Propping agent use to hold open fractures8.5 AcidsHydrochloric acid, acetic acidClean and help dissolve minerals and initiate cracks0.15 Clay stabilizers Choline chloride, tetramethylammonium chloridePrevent swelling of clays found in shale0.12 Scale inhibitors Carboxylic acids and acrylic acid polymersPrevent formation of scale (mineral) deposits in pipe0.09 6

7 Fracking Fluid Surfactants Amido-amines, quaternary amines, phosphate esters Friction reducersPolyacrylamide BreakersNaCl and KCl Biocides Gluteraldehyde, DBNPA, quaternary ammonium compounds GelsGuar gum pH adjusting agents Sodium or potassium carbonate CrosslinkersBorate salts Iron controlCitric acid 7

8 Environmental Impact The primary environmental concern is ground water pollution. Can measure CH4 and higher-chain hydrocarbons o Biologically Derived more negative than -64‰ o Deeper Thermogenic less negative than -50 ‰ 8

9 Seismic Activity Frequency vs. magnitude for 198 published examples of induced seismicity. The many examples of induced seismicity that are not published are not included on UK -2.3 Magnitude Canada-3.8 Magnitude Oklahoma-2.8 Magnitude 9

10 Induced seismicity caused by hydraulic fracturing Vertical stress Normal stress Horizontal stress 10

11 Environmental Impact Water usage 2-5 million gallons per well – concern in dry regions Flowback water mixes with Produced Water Chemicals – toxic, carcinogenic, or mutagenic Recovery Chemicals in ground – salts, heavy metals, hydrocarbons, radioactive materials Flow back – large tanks or open pits, recycled or disposed Atmospheric pollution leaks from shale gas well Large number of trucks 11

12 Natural Gas Composition 12

13 Natural Gas Reserves CountryProven Natural Gas Reserve (Trillion cubic feet- Tcf) Russia1,688 Iran1,187 Qatar885.3 Turkmenistan353.10 United States334.07 13

14 Natural Gas Estimates U.S. ~ 2,400 Tcf ◦as estimated in 2013 by the Potential Gas committee (PGC) Current annual usage ~ 24 Tcf ◦Roughly 100yr supply of natural gas Advancement in Technology could vastly increase recovery ◦At least 1000yr supply of natural gas in the U.S. that is unrecoverable 14

15 Benefits of Natural Gas/Fracking  Lower CO2 emissions that Oil and Coal  Emissions: 1 g CO2 Gas = 1.4 g Oil; or 1.78g Coal  Efficient energy usage: 90% of gas is useful energy  Comparatively: 30% energy converted to electricity reaches customers  Has many uses  Used to make fertilizer and methane  Used for cleaner diesel fuel  Used to generate electric power  Domestically Produced  More Jobs  Security from foreign affairs 15

16 Regulations on Fracking Federal ◦EPA administers the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) has no authority for Fracking ◦Energy Policy Act 2005 exempted underground injection related to oil, gas, or geothermal activities ◦Obama administration just unveiled nation’s first major federal regulations on hydraulic fracturing State ◦Regulate to protect state’s water supplies ◦Wyoming: Require companies to identify water-supply wells, demonstrate wellbore integrity, and report chemical use to the Oil and Gas Conservation 16

17 Summary  Fracking opens up a vast storage of Natural Gas  Can allow for energy independence  Uses large amounts of water adds pollutants  Seismic activity – full effects unknown  Newer regulations  New technologies 17

18 Questions or Comments? 18

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