Presentation on theme: "Hydraulic Fracturing 101. What is Hydraulic Fracturing? Hydraulic fracturing, or “fracking”, is the process of drilling and injecting fluid into the ground."— Presentation transcript:
What is Hydraulic Fracturing? Hydraulic fracturing, or “fracking”, is the process of drilling and injecting fluid into the ground at a high pressure in order to break or fracture the shale rocks to release natural gas inside.
What is hydraulic fracturing? This is an old technique for increasing oil production from worked-out oil wells, but a new technique for obtaining methane (natural gas).
Hydraulic Fracturing Process 1. Drill the well o Vertical till the shale is reached and then horizontal lateral 2. Case and Cement possible hazard areas o Pressure zones o Ground Water Areas 3. Perforate casing and cementing with Perforating Gun o Begins fracture process in rock formation 4. Pump fracturing fluid down hole o High pressured fluid extend fractures 5. Production
Hydraulic Fracturing Water laced with chemicals is pumped down to fracture the shale and releases the gas, which can be pumped up.
Casing and Cementing Casing and cementing a wellbore is used to: o Protect groundwater from contamination o Keep integrity of well-bore Casing is steel pipe that is designed to handle: o over- or under-pressured zones and o high tensile stresses down hole Casing is cemented in place to safely deliver hydrocarbons to the surface
Pennsylvania has considerable coal and considerable gas in shale formations. The coal is relatively “dirty”—high in contaminants such as sulfur. The gas is far below the surface in the Marcellus and Utica shales.