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Introduction, Approach and Methodology M. Nur Kholis Setiawan, UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta Mobile:

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction, Approach and Methodology M. Nur Kholis Setiawan, UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta Mobile:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction, Approach and Methodology M. Nur Kholis Setiawan, UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta E-mail: Mobile: Workshop on International Scientific Paper Writing DP2M, DIKTI

2 "The preparation of a scientific paper has almost nothing to do with literary skill. It is a question of organization." (Robert A. Day)

3 Getting Started The first task to accomplish as someone begins the process of writing is to order and organize the information he/she wishes to present.

4 Getting Started Some people work well from an outline, others do not. Some people write first to discover the points, then rearrange them using an after-the-fact outline.

5 IMRAD Introduction Methods Results and Discussion + Abstract & Title

6 Introduction Background + references Why someone did the study Why the answers are important Those not in the field should be able to comprehend the reasoning

7 Introduction description of background purpose and significance Short description of problem investigated, summary of relevant research to provide context, key terms and concepts so that its reader can understand the experiment, review of relevant research

8 Introduction Use short and effective sentences Avoid using long sentences, redundancy Know the audience Keep it short and simple

9 Common Errors in the Introduction The study question, (sometimes – hypothesis), study objectives are not specified. The study question, study purpose, objectives, hypothesis and goals are confused. The importance, novelty, originality of the study is not shown. The presentation is not intriguing (ie, the introduction is boring)

10 Introduction: examples See: Annex

11 APPROACHES Quantitative Approach 1.Objective, positivistic, and “free value”. Subjectivity should be avoided. 2.Deductive/ Inductive 3.Relation between phenomen, condition, object or variable is mostly causality or correlational. Therefore, causality relation should be explored objectively, reliable and testable by using numerical tool, such as statistics and mathematics.

12 Quantitative Approach 4.Result, discussion and analysis are explored mostly by using numerical tools such as putting into diagrams, table and other illustrations. 5.Data and information gathered are based on structured instruments, so that result of the research can be known accurately.

13 Quantitative Approaches Result, discussion and analysis should produce new finding. Therefore, position of the research as being mentioned in the introduction can be supported.

14 Approaches Qualitative Approach 1.Subjective, relativism and “not free value”. 2.Deductive, Inductive 3.Relation between fact and phenomena should be clearly indicated

15 Qualitative Approach 4.Every social and cultural phenomena should be discussed and analyzed comprehensively. 5.Clear exploration on relation between one fact with another so that the socio- cultural phenomena can be appropriately understood within its context is needed.

16 Qualitative Approach 6.Data and information gathered through depth- interview and participant observation. Field notes, then, are very important to be used in discussion and analysis sections. 7.Discussion and analysis is not only a thick description, but also interpretative so that the symbolic meaning in the phenomena can be catched contextually. 8.Data that is based on statistics is still usefull to support the discussion.

17 METHODS & METHODOLOGY  Connection between approach, analysis in the discussion with method is very close. Methodology is a terminus technicus for research. In relation to scientific paper writing the usage of the word method is more appropriate than methodology.

18 Methods statement about how problem can be studied, what approach can be applicable for that problem, how the research can be executed, what steps can be done

19 Methods What/who was tested How was it carried out (± references) Materials & Special equipment How precise were the measurements How the data were analyzed Enough detail for readers to repeat & reproduce, without being too wordy

20 Methods  There are at least two kinds of method that are mostly used in the scientific writing: 1. Method in natural sciences 2. Method in humanities and social sciences

21 Methods NATURAL SCIENCES  descriptive-verificative,  objective-positivistics,  correlational/causality,  generality and predictive.

22 Methods Humanities and Social Sciences  thick description  subjective-interpretative,  ethnographic, hermeneutic,  fenomenology,  socio-critical theory

23 Common errors in the methods Methods that are reported were not used. Details of the methods are missing. Methods are omitted ( i.e. some results do not relate to the described methods)

24 Thanks for the attention. Keep writing!

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