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Review-Molecular Formula Nicotine, a component of tobacco, has an empirical formula of C 5 H 7 N. The molar mass of nicotine is 162 g. What is its molecular.

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Presentation on theme: "Review-Molecular Formula Nicotine, a component of tobacco, has an empirical formula of C 5 H 7 N. The molar mass of nicotine is 162 g. What is its molecular."— Presentation transcript:

1 Review-Molecular Formula Nicotine, a component of tobacco, has an empirical formula of C 5 H 7 N. The molar mass of nicotine is 162 g. What is its molecular formula? A compound contain 64.9% C, 13.5% H, and 21.6% O. Its molecular mass is 74 g. Find the molecular formula.

2 Unit 10: Chemical Equations

3 Chapter Objectives 1. To learn to write chemical equations 2. To correctly interpret chemical equations

4 Chemical Reactions In a chemical reaction, substances join together to form new substances The original substances present are called REACTANTS The new substances formed are called PRODUCTS

5 Discussion of Chemical Reactions The general form of an equation is: Reactants  Products The  is read as “yields” or “reacts to produce”

6 Discussion of Chemical Reactions A + B  C Substance “A” and “B” react to produce substance “C”

7 Additional Symbols in Chemical Reactions + used to separate reactants or products (s) means chemical is in solid state (l) means chemical is in liquid state

8 Additional Symbols in Chemical Reactions (g) means chemical is in gas state (aq) means chemical is dissolved in water *See Table 10-1 in book (page 278)

9 Other Symbols  means something is added to the reaction –Usually this is heat Pt means a catalyst (Pt) is added

10 Skeleton Equations Skeleton (Formula) Equation- the rough form of an equation It only shows the framework for the chemical reaction

11 Write Skeleton Equations Sodium metal reacts with Oxygen gas to form solid Sodium Oxide Solid sulfur reacts with Fluorine gas to form gaseous Sulfur Hexafluoride when heated Nitrogen reacts with Hydrogen to form Ammonia (NH 3 ) gas. Heat is required.

12 Types of Reactions There are five general types of reactions: Synthesis Decomposition Single Displacement Double Displacement Combustion

13 Synthesis Reactions Synthesis reactions are also called combination reactions A synthesis reaction occurs when two substances combine to form a new compound

14 Synthesis Reaction Continued The general form of a synthesis reaction is: A + X  AX Substance “AX” is the only substance formed

15 Examples of Synthesis Reactions 2 Mg (s) + O 2 (g)  2 MgO (s) Fe (s) + Cl 2 (g)  FeCl 2 (s) U (s) + 3 F 2 (g)  UF 6 (g)

16 Decomposition Reaction In decomposition reactions, one substance breaks down (decomposes) into two or more simpler substances

17 Decomposition Reactions Cont. General Form of Decomposition Reaction: AX  A + X

18 Examples of Decomposition Reactions 2 HgO (s)  2 Hg (l) + O 2 (g) Ca(OH) 2  CaO (s) + H 2 O (g) H 2 SO 4 (aq)  SO 3 (g) + H 2 O (l)  

19 Single Replacement Reaction In a single replacement reaction (also called a displacement reaction), an element reacts with a compound A + BX  AX + B

20 Examples of Single Replacement Reactions Mg + Zn(NO 3 ) 2  Mg(NO 3 ) 2 + Zn Mg + 2 AgNO 3  Mg(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2 Ag

21 Rules for Single Replacement Reactions Not all single replacement reactions occur You can determine if a reaction will occur by knowing the activity series of metals

22 Rules for Single Replacement The activity series tell you if one metal can replace another metal in a reaction The Activity Series is ordered Any metal that is above another metal in the activity series WILL REPLACE the less reactive metal

23 Activity Series Li K Ca Na Mg Al Zn Fe Pb H* Cu Hg Ag

24 Predict if the following reactions will occur 1. Fe + H 2 O 2. Mg + LiNO 3 3. Na + AgCl

25 Double Displacement Reactions In a double displacement reaction, two compounds react The compounds swap elements with each other

26 Double Displacement Cont Compounds contain a positive and negative part In a double displacement, the positive parts swap places with each other as do the negative parts

27 Examples PbCl 2 (s) + Li 2 SO 4 (aq)  PbSO 4 (s) + 2 LiCl (aq) ZnBr 2 (aq) + 2 AgNO 3 (aq)  Zn(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2 AgBr (s)

28 Combustion Reactions In a combustion reaction, a Hydrocarbon (compound containing Hydrogen and Carbon) reacts with Oxygen (O 2 ) The products are CO 2 and H 2 O

29 Example 2 C 6 H 6 + 15 O 2  12 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O *Combustion Reactions commonly require large coefficients

30 Ionic Equations Most ionic compound dissociate (or break apart) when dissolved in water to form its component ions For example: NaCl (aq) really looks like Na + (aq) and Cl - (aq)

31 Soluble Vs. Precipitate Soluble means that the compound breaks down into its ions in water Ex) NaCl is soluble so it forms Na + and Cl - Insoluble means that the compound doesn’t break down in water

32 Precipitate Reactions In double replacement reactions, often one of the product will be insoluble The insoluble product is referred to as a precipitate Precipitate Rules are on the EOC sheet

33 Practice Determine if soluble or insoluble: A) NaClB) K 2 O C) Fe(NO 3 ) 3 D) AgCl E) BaSF) Cd(OH) 2 G) FeCl 3 H) PbCO 3

34 Ionic Equations Continued To write a Complete Ionic Equation: Write the aqueous substances as ions (leave any substances in gas, liquids, & solids alone) Example: AgNO 3 (aq) + NaCl (aq)  AgCl (s) + NaNO 3 (aq)

35 Writing Ionic Equations 1. (NH 4 ) 2 S (aq) + Cd(NO 3 ) 2 (aq)  NH 4 NO 3 (???) + CdS (???) 2. Zn(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + (NH 4 ) 2 S (aq)  ZnS (???) + NH 4 NO 3 (???)

36 Spectator Ions Spectator Ions-Ions that are not directly involved in a reaction Spectator ions show up on both sides of the equation Spectator Ions cancel out

37 NET Ionic Equations Net Ionic Equation-Indicate the particles that actually take part in a reaction The Net Ionic Equation does NOT include spectator ions Net Ionic Equations must be balanced according to atoms and charge

38 Write Net Ionic Equations 1. (NH 4 ) 2 S (aq) + Cd(NO 3 ) 2 (aq)  2. Zn(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + (NH 4 ) 2 S (aq) 

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