8 This still doesn’t tell about the relative amounts involved Skeleton EquationsHow would you write a skeleton equation for the production of a tricycle?F + W + H + P FW3H2P2Notice:This still doesn’t tell about the relative amounts involved
10 You must use coefficients to indicate the relative amounts involved. Balanced EquationsHow would you write a balance chemical equation for the production of a tricycle?F + 3W + 2H + 2P FW3H2P2Notice:You must use coefficients to indicate the relative amounts involved.
25 Single-Replacement Reactions One element replaces another element in a compound.Our analogy: Date-stealingWhat distinguishes a S-R reaction is an uncombined element in the reactants with a different uncombined element in the products.
28 Will S-R Reactions Occur? Whether one metal will replace another in a compound depends their respective reactivities.A reactive metal will replace any metal below it in the reactivity series.See Table 11.2 on page 333.What about the reactivity of the halogens?
34 Double-Replacement Reactions For a D-R reaction to occur, one of the following is usually true:One of the products is a solid that precipitates outOne of the products is a gasOne of the products is a molecular compound, such as water
35 Combustion ReactionsAn element or a compound reacts with oxygen, often producing light and heat.Complete combustion = a hydrocarbon reacting with oxygen to produce ONLY carbon dioxide and water as the products.
44 Reactions in Aqueous Solution Essential Question:What does a net ionic equation show, and how can one predict the formation of a precipitate in a double-replacement reaction?
45 Net Ionic EquationsA net ionic equation shows only those particles involved in the reaction and is balanced with respect to both mass and charge.All ions that are unchanged from the reactants side to the products side of the equation are eliminated.
46 Net Ionic Equations Begin with a double-replacement reaction: AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq)AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)Write the complete ionic equation:Ag+(aq) + NO3–(aq) + Na+ (aq) + Cl– (aq)AgCl(s) + Na+(aq) + NO3– (aq)
47 Net Ionic Equations, cont. Eliminate the ions that are “spectators”Ag+(aq) + NO3–(aq) + Na+ (aq) + Cl– (aq)AgCl(s) + Na+(aq) + NO3– (aq)What remains is the Net Ionic EquationAg+(aq) + Cl– (aq) AgCl(s)
48 Formation of Precipitates One can predict the formation of a precipitate by using the general rules for solubility for ionic compounds.See Table 11.3 on page 344, or see the Reference Tables.